New Forests

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 167–193 | Cite as

Greenhouse gas emissions in response to nitrogen fertilization in managed forest ecosystems

  • Raj K. Shrestha
  • Brian D. Strahm
  • Eric B. Sucre
Invited Review


Nitrogen (N) fertilizer use in managed forest ecosystems is increasing in the United States and worldwide to enhance social, economical and environmental services. However, the effects of N-fertilization on production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in managed forest ecosystems are poorly understood, unlike in agriculture where effects are well documented. Therefore, a review of the available literature was conducted to comprehend the effects of N-fertilization on CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions in managed forest ecosystems to summarize sources, sinks, and controlling factors, as well as potential mitigation strategies and research gaps to reduce GHG emissions. This review clearly identifies the importance of N-fertilizer management practices on CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. Potential N management practices to mitigate GHG emissions in managed forest ecosystems include improving N uptake efficiency, identifying and managing spatial variation in soil fertility, using the right fertilizer source at the right time, adopting appropriate methods of N-fertilizer application, and introducing nitrification/denitrification inhibitors. Nitrogen-fertilizer response is affected by soil physical (e.g., moisture, drainage, bulk density, and texture), chemical (e.g., nutrient availability, labile carbon, soil pH, and C/N ratio) and local climatic factors (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall). Therefore, the interactions of these factors on GHG emissions need to be considered while evaluating N-fertilizer management practices. Existing studies are often limited, focusing primarily on temperate forest ecosystems, lacking estimation of net emissions considering all three predominant soil-derived GHGs, and were often conducted on a small scale, making upscaling challenging. Therefore, large-scale studies conducted in diverse climates, evaluating cumulative net emissions, are needed to better understand N-fertilization effects on GHG emissions and develop mitigation strategies. Mitigation strategies and research gaps have also been identified, which require the collaborative efforts of forest owners, managers, and scientists to increase adoption of N-fertilization best management practices and understand the importance of N-fertilizer management strategies in reducing emissions and enhancing the net GHG sink potential for managed forest ecosystems.


Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Biosphere–atmosphere exchange Soil gas flux 


  1. Abbas F, Fares A (2009) Soil organic carbon and carbon dioxide emission from an organically amended Hawaiian tropical soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73:995–1003Google Scholar
  2. Abbasi MK, Adams WA (2000) Gaseous N emission during simultaneous nitrification–denitrification associated with mineral N fertilisation to a grassland soil under field conditions. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1251–1259Google Scholar
  3. Adamsen APS, King GM (1993) Methane consumption in temperate and sub-arctic forest soils. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 5:319–334Google Scholar
  4. Alam MS, Jia Z (2012) Inhibition of methane oxidation by nitrogenous fertilizers in a paddy soil. Front Microbiol 3(246):1–13Google Scholar
  5. Albaugh TJ, Allen HL, Fox TR (2007) Historical patterns of forest fertilization in the Southeastern United States from 1969 to 2004. South J Appl For 31:129–137Google Scholar
  6. Albaugh TJ, Vance ED, Gaudreault C, Fox TR, Allen HL, Stape JL, Rubilar RA (2012) Carbon emissions and sequestration from fertilization of pine in the southeastern United States. For Sci 58:419–429Google Scholar
  7. Ambus P, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Butterbach-Bahl K (2006) Sources of nitrous oxide emitted from European forest soils. Biogeosciences 3:135–145Google Scholar
  8. Archambault L, Delisle C, Larocque GR (2008) Forest regeneration 50 years following partial cutting in mixedwood ecosystems of southern Quebec, Canada. For Ecol Manag 257(2):703–711Google Scholar
  9. Arnebrant K, Baath E, Söderström B, Nohrstedt H (1996) Soil microbial activity in eleven Swedish coniferous forests in relation to site fertility and nitrogen fertilization. Scand J Forest Res 11:1–6Google Scholar
  10. Arnold KV, Nilsson M, Hanell B, Weslied P, Klemedtsson L (2005) Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1059–1071Google Scholar
  11. Aronson EL, Vann DR, Helliker BR (2012) Methane flux response to nitrogen amendment in an upland pine forest soil and riparian zone. J Geophys Res Biogeol 117:G3. doi: 10.1029/2012JG001962 Google Scholar
  12. Bateman EJ, Baggs EM (2005) Contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emissions from soils at different water-filled pore space. Biol Fertil Soils 41:379–388Google Scholar
  13. Bedard C, Knowles R (1989) Physiology, biochemistry, and specific inhibitors of CH4, NH4 +, and CO oxidation by methanotrophs and nitrifiers. Microb Rev 53:68–84Google Scholar
  14. Benstead J, King GM (2001) The effect of soil acidification on atmospheric methane uptake by a Maine forest soil. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 34:207–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Berg B, Laskowski R (2006) Litter decomposition: a guide to carbon and nutrient turnover. Adv Ecol Res 38. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, p 421Google Scholar
  16. Berger S, Jung E, Köpp J, Kang H, Gebauer G (2013) Monsoon rains, drought periods and soil texture as drivers of soil N2O fluxes -Soil drought turns East Asian temperate deciduous forest soils into temporary and unexpectedly persistent N2O sinks. Soil Biol Biochem 57:273–281Google Scholar
  17. Bernal S, Hedin LO, Likens GE, Stefan G, Buso DC (2012) Complex response of the forest nitrogen cycle to climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:3406–3411PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Billore SK, Numata M, Minami K (1996) Nitrous oxide emission from grassland and forest soils through nitrification. Curr Sci 70:1010–1012Google Scholar
  19. Birdsey R, Alig R, Adams D (2000) Mitigation activities in the forest sector to reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases. In: Joyce LA, Birdsey R (eds) The impact of climate change on America’s forests: A technical document supporting the 2000 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-59. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, pp 112–131Google Scholar
  20. Bodelier PLE (2011) Interactions between nitrogenous fertilizers and methane cycling in wetland and upland soils. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 3:379–388Google Scholar
  21. Bodelier PLE, Laanbroek HJ (2004) Nitrogen as a regulatory factor of methane oxidation in soils and sediments. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 47:265–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Boeckx P, Cleemput OV, Villaralvo I (1997) Methane oxidation in soils with different textures and land use. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 49:91–95Google Scholar
  23. Borjesson G, Nohrstedt HO (1998) Short- and long-term effects of nitrogen fertilization on methane oxidation in three Swedish forest soils. Biol Fertil soils 27:113–118Google Scholar
  24. Borken W, Beese F (2005) Control of nitrous oxide emissions in European beech, Norway spruce and Scots pine forests. Biogeochemistry 76:141–159Google Scholar
  25. Borken W, Brumme R (1997) Liming practices in temperate forest ecosystems and the effects on CO2, N2O and CH4 fluxes. Soil Use Manage 13:251–257Google Scholar
  26. Borken W, Brumme R (2009) Methane uptake by forest soils. Ecol Stu 208 Part B 369–385Google Scholar
  27. Bouma TJ, Bryla DR (2000) On the assessment of root and soil respiration for soils of different textures: interactions with soil moisture contents and soil CO2 concentrations. Plant Soil 227:215–221Google Scholar
  28. Bowden RD, Melillo JM, Steudler PA (1991) Effects of nitrogen additions on annual nitrous-oxide fluxes from temperate forest soils in the northeastern United States. J Geophys Res 96:9321–9328Google Scholar
  29. Bowden RD, Rullo R, Stevens GR, Steudler PA (2000) Soil fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane at a productive temperate deciduous forest. J Environ Qual 29:268–276Google Scholar
  30. Bowden RD, Davidson E, Savage K, Arabia C, Steudler P (2004) Chronic nitrogen additions reduce total soil respiration and microbial respiration in temperate forest soils at the Harvard forest. For Ecol Manag 196:43–56Google Scholar
  31. Brown JR, Blankinship JC, Niboyet A, van Groenigen KJ, Dijkstra P, Roux XL, Leadley PW, Hungate BA (2012) Effects of multiple global change treatments on soil N2O fluxes. Biogeochemistry 109:85–100Google Scholar
  32. Brumme R, Beese F (1992) Effects of liming and nitrogen fertilization on emissions of CO2 and N2O from a temperate forest. J Geophys Res Atmos 97:12851–12858Google Scholar
  33. Brumme R, Borken W (1999) Site variation in methane oxidation as affected by atmospheric deposition and type of temperate forest ecosystem. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 13:493–501Google Scholar
  34. Brumme R, Borken W, Finke S (1999) Hierarchical control on nitrous oxide emission in forest ecosystems. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 13:1137–1148Google Scholar
  35. Burton AJ, Pregitzer KS, Ruess RW, Hendrick RL, Allen MF (2002) Root respiration in North American forests: effects of nitrogen concentration and temperature across biomes. Oecologia 131:559–568Google Scholar
  36. Burton AJ, Pregitzer KS, Crawford JN, Zogg GP, Zak DR (2004) Simulated chronic NO3 deposition reduces soil respiration in northern hardwood forests. Glob Change Biol 10:1080–1091Google Scholar
  37. Burzaco JP, Smith DR, Vyn TJ (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions in Midwest US maize production vary widely with band-injected N fertilizer rates, timing and nitrapyrin presence. Environmental Research Letters, 8(3), 035031. IP Address: Scholar
  38. Butnor JR, Johnsen KH, Oren R, Katul GG (2003) Reduction of forest floor respiration by fertilization on both carbon dioxide-enriched and reference 17-year-old loblolly pine stands. Glob Change Biol 9:849–861Google Scholar
  39. Cahill S, Osmond D, Israel D (2010) Nitrogen release from coated urea fertilizers in different soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 41:1245–1256Google Scholar
  40. Cai Y, Ding W, Luo J (2012) Spatial variation of nitrous oxide emission between interrow soil and interrow plus row soil in a long-term maize cultivated sandy loam soil. Geoderma 181–182:2–10Google Scholar
  41. Campbell NER, Aleem MIH (1965) The effect of 2-chloro, 6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine on the chemoautotrophic metabolish of nitrifying bacteria. 1. Ammonia and hydroxylamine oxidation by Nitrosomonas. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 31:124–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Canfield DE, Glazer AN, Falkowski PG (2010) The evolution and future of Earth’s nitrogen cycle. Science 330:192–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Castro MS, Steudler PA, Melillo JM, Aber JD, Millham S (1993) Exchange of N2O and CH4 between the atmosphere and soils in spruce-fir forests in the northeastern United States. Biogeochemistry 18:119–135Google Scholar
  44. Castro MS, Peterjohn WT, Melillo JM, Steudler PA, Gholz HL, Lewis D (1994) Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the fluxes of N2O, CH4, and CO2 from soils in a Florida slash pine plantation. Can J For Res 24:9–13Google Scholar
  45. Castro MS, Steudler PA, Melillo JM, Aber JD, Bowden RD (1995) Factors controlling atmospheric methane consumption by temperate forest soils. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 9:1–10Google Scholar
  46. Chan ASK, Steudler PA, Bowden RD, Gulledge J, Cavanaugh CM (2005) Consequences of nitrogen fertilization on soil methane consumption in a productive temperate deciduous forest. Biol Fertil Soils 41:182–189Google Scholar
  47. Chapin FS, Matson PA, Mooney HA (2002) Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Christiansen JR, Vesterdal L, Gundersen P (2012) Nitrous oxide and methane exchange in two small temperate forest catchments—effects of hydrological gradients and implication for global warming potential of forest soils. Biogeochemistry 107:437–454Google Scholar
  49. Ciais P, Tans PP, Trolier M, White JWC, Francey RJ (1995) A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by 13C/12C of atmospheric CO2. Science 269:1098–1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Conrad R (1996) Soil microorganism as controllers of atmospheric trace gases (H2, CO, CH4, OCS, N2O, and NO). Microb Rev 60:609Google Scholar
  51. Corre MD, Pennock DJ, Kessel C, Kirkelliott D (1999) Estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions from a transitional grassland-forest region in Saskatchewan, Canada. Biogeochemistry 44:29–49Google Scholar
  52. Crutzen PJ, Sanhueza E, Brenninkmeijer CAM (2006) Methane production from mixed tropical savanna and forest vegetation in Venezuela. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 6:3093–3097Google Scholar
  53. Cusack DF, Whendee L, Silver MS, Torn SDB, Firestone MK (2011) Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests. Ecology 92:621–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dalal RC, Allen DE (2008) Greenhouse gas fluxes from natural ecosystems. Aust J Bot 56:369–407Google Scholar
  55. Dalal RC, Wang WJ, Robertson GP, Parton WJ (2003) Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review. Aust J Soil Res 41:165–195Google Scholar
  56. Davidson EA (1991) Fluxes of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from terrestrial ecosystems. A global inventory of nitric oxide emissions from soils. In: Rogers JE, Whitman WB (eds) Microbial production and consumption of greenhouse gases: methane, nitrogen oxides, and halomethanes. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp 219–235Google Scholar
  57. Davidson EA (2009) The contribution of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to atmospheric nitrous oxide since 1860. Nat Geosci 2:659–662Google Scholar
  58. Davidson EA, Keller M, Ericson HE, Verchot L, Louis V, Veldkamp E (2000) Testing a conceptual model of soil emissions of nitrous and nitric oxides. Bioscience 50:667–680Google Scholar
  59. Deng Q, Zhou G, Liu J, Liu S, Duan H, Zhang D (2010) Responses of soil respiration to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition in young subtropical forest ecosystems in China. Biogeosciences 7:315–328Google Scholar
  60. Denman KL, Brasseur G, Chidthaisong A, Ciais P, Cox PM, Dickinson RE, Hauglustaine D, Heinze C, Holland E, Jacob D, Lohmann U, Ramachandran S, da Silva Dias PL, Wofsy SC, Zhang X (2007) Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate Change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group i to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp 499–587Google Scholar
  61. Dobbie KE, Smith KA (1996) Comparision of CH4 oxidation rates in woodland, arable and set aside soils. Soil Biol Biochem 28:1357–1365Google Scholar
  62. Dobbie KE, Smith KA, Prieme A, Christensen S, Degorska A, Orlanski P (1996) Effect of land use on the rate of methane uptake by surface soils in northern Europe. Atmos Environ 30(7):1005–1011Google Scholar
  63. Dobbie KE, McTaggart IP, Smith KA (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agriculture systems: variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factors. J Geophys Res 104:26891–26899Google Scholar
  64. Dutaur L, Verchot LV (2007) A global inventory of the soil CH4 sink. Global Biogeochem Cycles 21:GB4013Google Scholar
  65. Ehhalt D, Prather M, Dentener F, Derwent R, Dlugokencky EJ, Holland E, Isaksen I, Katima J, Kirchhoff V, Matson P, Midgley P, Wang M, Berntsen T, Bey I, Brasseur G, Buja L, Collins WJ, Daniel JS, DeMore WB, Derek N, Dickerson R, Etheridge D, Feichter J, Fraser P, Friedl R, Fuglestvedt J, Gauss M, Grenfell L, Grubler A, Harris N, Hauglustaine D, Horowitz L, Jackman C, Jacob D, Jaegle L, Jain AK, Kanakidou M, Karlsdottir S, Ko M, Kurylo M, Lawrence M, Logan JA, Manning M, Mauzerall D, McConnell J, Mickley LJ, Montzka S, Muller JF, Olivier J, Pickering K, Pitari G, Roelofs GJ, Rogers H, Rognerud B, Smith SJ, Solomon S, Staehelin J, Steele P, Stevenson DS, Sundet J, Thompson A, van Weele M, von Kuhlmann R, Wang Y, Weisenstein D, Wigley TM, Wild O, Wuebbles DJ, Yantosca R, Joos F, McFarland M (2001). Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases. In: Houghton J et al (eds) IPCC climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 240–287Google Scholar
  66. Eickenscheidt N, Brumme R, Veldkamp E (2011) Direct contribution of nitrogen deposition to nitrous oxide emissions in a temperate beech and spruce forest—a 15 N tracer study. Biogeoscience 8:621–635Google Scholar
  67. Elliot JR, Fox TR (2006) Effects of a controlled release fertilizer on the nitrogen dynamics of mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation in the Piedmont, Virginia. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-92. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, pp 124–128Google Scholar
  68. Fender A, Pfeiffer B, Gansert D, Leuschner C, Daniel R, Jungkunst HF (2012) The inhibiting effect of nitrate fertilization on methane uptake of a temperate forest soil is influenced by labile carbon. Biol Fertil Soils 48:621–631Google Scholar
  69. FIDO (Forest Inventory Data Online) (2011) Carbon in U.S. forests. USDA Forest Service (Accessed on 8/9/2011)
  70. Fisher BS, Nakicenovic N, Alfsen K, Corfee Morlot J, de la Chesnaye F, Hourcade J Ch, Jiang K, Kainuma M, Rovere E La, Matysek A, Rana A, Riahi K, Richels R, Rose S, van Vuuren D, Warren R (2007) Issues related to mitigation in the long term context. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds) Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change, Ch. 3 Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  71. Fleischer K, Janssens IA, Gianelle D, Dolman AJ, Rebel KT, van der Molen MK, Erisman JW, Wassen MJ, van Loon EE, Montagnani L, Gough CM, Herbst M (2013) The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the photosynthetic capacity of forests. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 27:187–199Google Scholar
  72. Fog K (1988) The effect of added nitrogen on the rate of decomposition of organic matter. Biol Rev 63:433–462Google Scholar
  73. Fox TR, Allen HL, Albaugh TJ, Rubilar R, Carlson CA (2007) Tree nutrition and forest fertilization of pine plantations in the southern United States. South J Appl For 31:5–11Google Scholar
  74. Frankenberg C, Meirink JF, van Weele M, Platt U, Wagner T (2005) Assessing methane emissions from global space-borne observations. Science 308:1010–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Frasier R, Ullah S, Moore TR (2010) Nitrous Oxide Consumption Potentials of Well-drained Forest Soils in Southern Quebec, Canada. Geomicrobiol J 27:53–60Google Scholar
  76. Fujinuma R, Balster NJ, Hyung-Kyung L (2011) Reduced rates of controlled-release fertilizer lower potential nitrogen leaching from a Wisconsin bare-root tree nursery. Proceedings of the 17th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-78. pp 347–357.
  77. Galloway JN, Dentener FJ, Capone DG, Boyer EW, Howarth RW, Seitzinger RP, Asner GP, Cleveland CC, Green PA, Holland EA, Karl DM, Michaels AF, Porter JH, Townsend AR, Vorosmarty CJ (2004) Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochemistry 70:153–226Google Scholar
  78. Galloway JN, Townsend AR, Erisman JW, Bekunda M, Cai Z, Freney JR, Martinelli LA, Seitzinger SP, Sutton MA (2008) Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science 320:889–892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gan J, Smith CT, Langeveld JWA (2012) Effects of considering greenhouse gas consequences on fertilizer use in loblolly pine plantations. J Environ Manage 113:383–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Garcia-Montiel DC, Steudler PA, Neill C, Melillo JM, Piccolo MC, Cerri CC (2001) Controls on soil nitrogen oxide emissions from forest and pastures in the Brazilian Amazon. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 15:1021–1030Google Scholar
  81. Goldberg SD, Gebauer G (2009) Drought turns a central European Norway spruce forest soil from an N2O source to a transient N2O sink. Glob Change Biol 15:850–860Google Scholar
  82. Goldberg SD, Knorr KH, Blodau C, Lischeid G, Gebauer G (2010) Impact of altering the water table height of an acidic fen on N2O and NO fluxes and soils concentrations. Glob Change Biol 16:220–223Google Scholar
  83. Gough CM, Seiler JR (2004) Belowground carbon dynamics in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) immediately following diammonium phosphate fertilization. Tree Physiol 24:845–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Green CJ, Blackmer AM, Yang NC (1994) Release of fixed ammonium during nitrification in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:1411–1415Google Scholar
  85. Griffin KL, Bashkin MA, Thomas RB, Strain BR (1997) Interactive effects of soil nitrogen and atmospheric carbon dioxide on root/rhizosphere carbon dioxide efflux from loblolly and ponderosa pine seedlings. Plant Soil 190:11–18Google Scholar
  86. Grip H, Jansson P (2012) Modelling 100 years of C and N fluxes at fertilized Swedish mountainous spruce forests. In: Haigh MJ, Hofer T, Krecek J, Kubin E (eds) Management of mountain watersheds. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 200–206Google Scholar
  87. Groffman PM, Butterbach-Bahl K, Fulweiler RW, Gold AJ, Morse JL, Stander EK, Tague C, Tonitto C, Vidon P (2009) Challenges to incorporating spatially and temporally explicit phenomena (hotspots and hot moments) in denitrification models. Biogeochemistry 93:49–77Google Scholar
  88. Guckland A, Flessa H, Prenzel J (2009) Controls of temporal and spatial variability of methane uptake in soils of a temperate deciduous forest with different abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Soil Biol Biochem 41:1659–1667Google Scholar
  89. Gundersen PP, Christiansen JR, Alberti G, Brüggemann N, Castaldi S, Gasche R, Kitzler B, Klemedtsson L, Lobo-do-Vale R, Moldan F, Rutting T, Schleppi P, Weslien P, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2012) The response of methane and nitrous oxide fluxes to forest change in Europe. Biogeosciences 9:3999–4012Google Scholar
  90. Haase DL, Alzugaray P, Rose R, Jacobs DF (2007) Nutrient-release rates of controlled-release fertilizers in forest soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 38:739–750Google Scholar
  91. Hall GH (1984) Measurement of nitrification rates in lake sediments: comparision of the nitrification inhibitors nitrapyrin and allylthiourea. Microb Ecol 10:25–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hall A (2005) Benefits of enhanced-efficiency fertilizer for the environment. In: International Fertilizer Association International workshop on enhanced-efficiency fertilizers. Frankfurt, Germany, 28–30 June, 2005. The Mosaic Company, USAGoogle Scholar
  93. Hall SJ, Matson PA (1999) Nitrogen oxide emissions after nitrogen addition in tropical forests. Nature 400:152–155Google Scholar
  94. Harmsen GW, Van Schreven DA (1955) Mineralization of organic nitrogen in soil. Adv Agron 7:299–398Google Scholar
  95. Haynes BE, Gower ST (1995) Belowground carbon allocation in unfertilized and fertilized red pine plantations in northern Wisconsin. Tree Physiol 15:317–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Houlton BZ, Sigman DM, Hedin LO (2006) Isotopic evidence for large gaseous losses from tropical rainforests. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103(23):8745–8750PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hudgens DE, Yavitt JB (1997) Land-use effects on soil methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in forests near Ithaca, New York. Ecoscience 4:214–222Google Scholar
  98. Hutsch BW, Webster CP, Powlson DS (1994) Methane oxidation in soil as affected by land use, soil pH and N fertilization. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1613–1622Google Scholar
  99. Hyvönen R, Persson T, Andersson S, Olsson B, Ågren GI, Linder S (2008) Impact of long-term nitrogen addition on carbon stocks in trees and soils in northern Europe. Biogeochemistry 89:121–137Google Scholar
  100. Inclán R, Uribe C, Sánchez L, Sánchez DM, Clavero Á, Fernández AM, Morante R, Blanco A, Jandl R (2012) N2O and CH4 fluxes in undisturbed and burned holm oak, scots pine and pyrenean oak forests in central Spain. Biogeochemistry 107:19–41Google Scholar
  101. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Nagra T, Tanabe K (eds) Prepared by the national greenhouse gas inventories programme. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, JapanGoogle Scholar
  102. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007a) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Pachauri RK, Reisinger A (eds) IPCC Geneva, Switzerland 2, p 104.
  103. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007b) Climate Change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Groups I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon SD, Manning QM, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Chapter 2, pp 212–213.
  104. Jackson RB, Baker JS (2010) Opportunities and constraints for forest climate mitigation. Bioscience 60:698–707Google Scholar
  105. Janssens IA, Dieleman W, Luyssaert S, Subke JA, Reichstein M, Ceulemans R, Ciais P, Dolman AJ, Grace J, Matteucci G, Papale D, Piao SL, Schulze ED, Tang J, Law BE (2010) Reduction of forest soil respiration in response to nitrogen deposition. Nat Geosci 3:315–322Google Scholar
  106. Jäntti H, Leskinen E, Stange CF, Hietanen S (2012) Measuring nitrification in sediments–comparison of two techniques and three 15NO measurement methods. Isot Environ Health Stud 48:313–326Google Scholar
  107. Jassal RS, Black TA, Chen B, Roy R, Nesic Z, Spittlehouse DL, Trofymow JA (2008) N2O emissions and carbon sequestration in a nitrogen-fertilized Douglas fir stand. J Geophys Res 113(G04013):10. doi: 10.1029/2008JG000764 Google Scholar
  108. Jassal RS, Black TA, Trofymow JA, Roy R, Nesic Z (2010) Soil CO2 and N2O flux dynamics in a nitrogen-fertilized pacific northwest douglas-fir stand. Geoderma 157:118–125Google Scholar
  109. Jassal RS, Black TA, Roy R, Ethier G (2011) Effect of nitrogen fertilization on soil CH4 and N2O fluxes, and soil and bole respiration. Geoderma 162:182–186Google Scholar
  110. Johnson DW, Curtis PS (2001) Effects of forest management on soil C and N storage: meta-analysis. For Ecol Manag 140(2):227–238Google Scholar
  111. Johnson DW, Todd DE, Tolbert VR (2003) Changes in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen in a Loblolly pine plantation over the first 18 years. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:1594–1601Google Scholar
  112. Karchesy J, Koch P (1979) Energy production from hardwoods growing on southern pine sites. US Department of agriculture. Forest service. General Technical Report SO-24Google Scholar
  113. Keller M, Reiners WA (1994) Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane under secondary succession of pasture to forest in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 8:399–409Google Scholar
  114. Kellman L, Kavanaugh K (2008) Nitrous oxide dynamics in managed northern forest soil profiles: is production offset by consumption? Biogeochemistry 90. Isotopic evidence for large gaseous losses from tropical rainforests 115–128Google Scholar
  115. King GM (1997) Responses of atmospheric methane consumption by soils to global climate change. Glob Change Biol 3:351–362Google Scholar
  116. King GM, Schnell S (1994) Ammonium and nitrite inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylobacter albus BG8 and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b at low methane concentrations. Appl Environ Microb 60:3508–3513Google Scholar
  117. Klemedtsson L, Klemedtsson A, Moldan F, Weslien P (1997) Nitrous oxide emission from Swedish forest soils in relation to liming and simulated increased N-deposition. Biol Fertil Soils 25:290–295Google Scholar
  118. Klemedtsson L, Arnold KV, Weslien P, Gundersen P (2005) Soil CN ratio as a scaler parameter to predict nitrous oxide emissions. Glob Change Biol 11:1142–1147Google Scholar
  119. Koehler B, Corre MD, Veldkamp E, Wullaert H, Wright SJ (2009) Immediate and long-term nitrogen oxide emissions from tropical forest soils exposed to elevated nitrogen input. Glob Change Biol 15:2049–2066Google Scholar
  120. Konda R, Ohta S, Ishizuk S, Heriyano J, Wicaksono A (2012) N2O and CH4 fluxes from Acacia mangium plantation soils in response to nitrogen application and FH layer removal. Anadolu J Agric Sci 25:53–57Google Scholar
  121. Laverman AM, Zoomer HR, Engelbrecht D, Berg MP, van Straalen NM, van Versveld HW, Verhoef HA (2000) Soil layer-specific variability in net nitrification and denitrification in an acid coniferous forest. Biol Fertil Soils 32:427–434Google Scholar
  122. Law B (2013) Nitrogen deposition and forest carbon. Nature 496:307–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. LeBauer DS, Treseder KK (2008) Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed. Ecology 89:371–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Lee K, Jose S (2003) Soil respiration, fine root production, and microbial biomass in cottonwood and loblolly pine plantations along a nitrogen fertilization gradient. For Ecol Manage 185:263–273Google Scholar
  125. Lippke B, Elaine O, Harrison R, Skog K, Gustavsson L, Sathre R (2011) Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation: knowns and unknowns. Carbon Manage 2:303–333.
  126. Liski J, Pussinen A, Pingoud K, Makipaa R, Karjalainen T (2001) Which rotation length is favourable to carbon sequestration? Can J For Res 31:2004–2013Google Scholar
  127. Liu L, Greaver TL (2009) A review of nitrogen enrichment effects on three biogenic GHGs: the CO2 sink may be largely offset by stimulated N2O and CH4 emission. Ecol Lett 12:1103–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Long RP, Horsley SB, Lilja PR (1997) Impact of forest liming on growth and crown vigor of sugar maple and associated hardwoods. Can J For Res 27:1560–1573Google Scholar
  129. MacDonald JA, Skiba U, Sheppard LJ, Ball B, Roberts JD, Smith KA, Fowler D (1997) The effect of nitrogen deposition and seasonal variability on methane oxidation and nitrous oxide emission rates in an upland spruce plantation and moorland. Atmos Environ 31:3693–3706Google Scholar
  130. Magill AH, Aber JD, Hendricks JJ, Bowden RD, Melillo JM, Steudler PA (1997) Biogeochemical response of forest ecosystems to simulated chronic nitrogen deposition. Ecol Appl 7:402–415Google Scholar
  131. Maier CA, Kress LW (2000) Soil CO2 evolution and root respiration in 11 year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations as affected by moisture and nutrient availability. Can J For Res 30:347–359Google Scholar
  132. Malchair S, De Boeck HJ, Lemmens CMHM, Ceulemans R, Merckx R, Nijs I, Carnol M (2010) Diversity–function relationship of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soils among functional groups of grassland species under climate warming. Appl Soil Ecol 44:15–23Google Scholar
  133. Maljanen M, Jokinen H, Saari A, Strommer R, Martikainen PJ (2006) Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes, and carbon dioxide production in boreal forest soil fertilized with wood ash and nitrogen. Soil Use Manage 22:151–157Google Scholar
  134. Matson PA, Gower ST, Volkmann C, Billow C, Grier CC (1992) Soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide flux in a Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir forest: effects of fertilization, irrigation and carbon addition. Biogeochemistry 18:101–117Google Scholar
  135. McCarty GW, Bremner JM (1989) Inhibition of nitrification in soil by heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Biol Fertil Soils 8(3):204–211Google Scholar
  136. McKenzie C, Schiff S, Aravena R, Kelly C, Louis VS (1998) Effect of temperature on production of CH4 and CO2 from peat in a natural and flooded boreal forest wetland. Clim Change 40:247–266Google Scholar
  137. McKinley DC, Ryan MG, Birdsey RA, Giardina CP, Harmon ME, Heath LS, Houghton RA, Jackson RB, Morrison JF, Murray BC, Pataki DE, Skog KE (2011) A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States. Ecol Appl 21:1902–1924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. McNamara NP, Chamberlain PM, Piearce TG, Sleep D, Black HI, Reay DS, Ineson P (2006) Impact of water table depth on forest soil methane turnover in laboratory soil cores deduced from natural abundance and tracer 13C stable isotope experiments. Isot Environ Healt Stud 42:379–390Google Scholar
  139. Megonigal JP, Guenther AB (2008) Methane emissions from upland forest soils and vegetation. Tree Physiol 28:491–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Menéndez S, Barrena I, Setien I, González-Murua C, Estavillo JM (2012) Efficiency of nitrification inhibitor DMPP to reduce nitrous oxide emissions under different temperature and moisture conditions. Soil Biol Biochem 53:82–89Google Scholar
  141. Mo JM, Zhang W, Zhu WX, Gundersen P, Fang YT, Li DJ, Wang H (2008) Nitrogen addition reduces soil respiration in a mature tropical forest in southern China. Glob Change Biol 14:403–412Google Scholar
  142. Mochizuki Y, Koba K, Yoh M (2012) Strong inhibitory effect of nitrate on atmospheric methane oxidation in forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 50:64–166Google Scholar
  143. Mohanty SR, Bodelier PL, Floris V, Conrad R (2006) Differential effects of nitrogenous fertilizers on methane-consuming microbes in rice field and forest soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:1346–1354PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mojeremane W, Rees RM, Mencuccini M (2012) The effects of site preparation practices on carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from a peaty gley soil. Forestry 85:1–15Google Scholar
  145. Monastersky R (2013) Global carbon dioxide levels near worrisome milestone. Nature 497:13–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Montzka SA, Dlugokencky EJ, Butler JH (2011) Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change. Nature 476:43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Morgan KT, Cushman KE, Sato S (2009) Release mechanisms for slow- and controlled release fertilizers and strategies for their use in vegetable production. Hortic Technol 19:10–12Google Scholar
  148. Nave LE, Vance ED, Swanston CW, Curtis PS (2009) Impacts of elevated N inputs on north temperate forest soil C storage, C/N, and net N-mineralization. Geoderma 153:231–240Google Scholar
  149. Neff JC, Bowman WD, Holland EA, Fisk MC, Schmidt SK (1994) Fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from nitrogen-amended soils in a Colorado alpine ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 27:23–33Google Scholar
  150. Niboyet A, Le Roux X, Dijkstra P, Hungate BA, Barthes L, Blankinship JC, Brown JR, Field CB, Leadley PW (2011) Testing interactive effects of global environmental changes on soil nitrogen cycling. Ecosphere 2 Article 56Google Scholar
  151. Obreza TA, Rouse RE (2006) Long-term response of’Hamlin’ orange trees to controlledrelease nitrogen fertilizers. Hortic Sci 41:423–426Google Scholar
  152. Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Fang J, Houghton R, Kauppi PE, Kurz WA, Phillips OL, Shvidenko A, Lewis SL, Canadell JG, Ciais P, Jackson RB, Pacala S, McGuire DA, Piao S, Rautiainen A, Sitch S, Hayes D (2011) A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333:988–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Pang JZ, Wang XK, Ouyang YJ, Liu XJ (2009) Nitrous oxide emissions from an apple orchard soil in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China. Biol Fertil Soil 46:37–44Google Scholar
  154. Papen H, Daum M, Steinkamp R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2001) N2O and CH4-Fluxes from soils of a N-limited and N-fertilized spruce forest ecosystem of the temperate zone. J Appl Biol 75:159–163Google Scholar
  155. Pedersen H, Dunkin KA, Firestone MK (1999) The relative importance of autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification in aconifer forest soil as measured by 15 N tracer and pool dilution techniques. Biogeochemistry 44:135–150Google Scholar
  156. Peichl M, Arain MA, Ullah S, Moore TR (2010) Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide exchanges in an age-sequence of temperate pine forests. Glob Change Biol 16:2198–2212Google Scholar
  157. Peng Q, Qi Y, Dong Y, Xiao S, He Y (2011) Soil nitrous oxide emissions from a typical semiarid temperate steppe in inner Mongolia: effects of mineral nitrogen fertilizer levels and forms. Plant Soil 342:345–357Google Scholar
  158. Philips RP, Fahey TJ (2007) Fertilization effects on fine root biomass, rhizosphere microbes and respiratory fluxes in hardwood forest soils. New Phytol 176:655–664Google Scholar
  159. Pilegaard K, Skiba U, Ambus P, Beier C, Brüggemann N, Butterbach-Bahl K, Dick J, Dorsey J, Duyzer J, Gallagher M, Gasche R, Horvath L, Kitzler B, Leip A, Pihlatie MK, Rosenkranz P, Seufert G, Vesala T, Westrate H, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2006) Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O). Biogeosciences 3:651–661Google Scholar
  160. Pinder RW, Davidson EA, Goodale CL, Greaver TL, Herrick JD, Liu L (2012) Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:7671–7675PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Pinder RW, Bettez ND, Bonan GB, Greaver TL, Wieder WR, Schlesinger WH, Davidson EA (2013) Impacts of human alteration of the nitrogen cycle in the US on radiative forcing. Biogeochemistry 114:25–40Google Scholar
  162. Pregitzer KS, Laskowski MJ, Burton AJ, Lessard VC, Zak DR (1998) Variation in sugar maple root respiration with root diameter and soil depth. Tree Physiol 18:665–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Qi Y, Xu M (2001) Separating the effects of moisture and temperature on soil CO2 efflux in a coniferous forest in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Plant Soil 237:15–23Google Scholar
  164. Reay DS, Nedwell DB (2004) Methane oxidation in temperate soils: effects of inorganic N. Soil Biol Biochem 36:2059–2065Google Scholar
  165. Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Pregitzer KS, Wright IJ, Oleksyn J, Machado JL (2008) Scaling of respiration to nitrogen in leaves, stems and roots of higher land plants. Ecol Lett 11:793–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Rice AL, Butenhoff CL, Shearer MJ, Teama D, Rosenstiel TN, Khalil MAK (2010) Emissions of anaerobically produced methane by trees. Geophys Res Lett 37:L03807. doi: 10.1029/2009GL041565 Google Scholar
  167. Ring ERE, Jacobson SJS, Högbom LHL (2011) Long-term effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil chemistry in three Scots pine stands in Sweden. Can J Forest Res 41:279–288Google Scholar
  168. Rosenkranz P, Brüggemann N, Papen H, Xu Z, Seufert G, Butterbach-Bahl K (2006) N20 no and CH4 exchange and microbial n turnover over a Mediterranean pine forest soil. Biogeosciences 3:121–133Google Scholar
  169. Saari A, Rinnan R, Martikainen PJ (2004) Methane oxidation in boreal forest soils: kinetics and sensitivity to pH and ammonium. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1037–1046Google Scholar
  170. Schimel J (2000) Rice, microbes and methane. Nature 403:375–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Schlesinger WH, Bernhardt ES (2013) Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change. Academy Press, MAGoogle Scholar
  172. Schnell S, King GM (1994) Mechanistic analysis of ammonium inhibition of methane consumption in forest soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:3514–3521PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Schulze ED, Luyssaert S, Ciais P, Freibauer A, Janssens IA, Soussana JF, Smith P, Grace J, Levin I, Thiruchittampalam B, Heimann M, Dolman AJ, Valentini R, Bousquet P, Peylin P, Peters W, Roedenbeck C, Etiope G, Vuichard N, Wattenbach M, Nabuurs GJ, Poussi Z, Nieschulze J, Gash JH (2009) Importance of methane and nitrous oxide for Europe’s terrestrial greenhouse-gas balance. Nat Geosci 2:842–850Google Scholar
  174. Shan J, Morris LA, Hendrick RL (2001) The effects of management on soil and plant carbon sequestration in slash pine plantations. J Appl Ecol 38:932–941Google Scholar
  175. Shaviv A (2001) Advances in controlled-release fertilizers. Adv Agron 71:1–49Google Scholar
  176. Sitaula BK, Bakken LR (1993) Nitrous oxide release from spruce forest soil: relationships with nitrification, methane uptake, temperature, moisture and fertilization. Soil Biol Biochem 25:1415–1421Google Scholar
  177. Sitaula BK, Bakken LR, Abrahamsen B (1995a) N-fertilization and soil acidification effects on N2O and CO2 emission from temperate pine forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 27:1401–1408Google Scholar
  178. Sitaula BK, Bakken LR, Abrahamsen G (1995b) CH4 uptake by temperate forest soil: effect of N input and soil acidification. Soil Biol Biochem 27:871–880Google Scholar
  179. Sitaula BK, Hansen S, Sitaula JIB, Bakken LR (2000) Methane oxidation potentials and fluxes in agricultural soil: effects of fertilization and soil compaction. Biogeochemistry 48:323–339Google Scholar
  180. Smith KA, Conen F (2004) Impacts of land management on fluxes of trace greenhouse gases. Soil Use Manage 20:255–263Google Scholar
  181. Smith KA, Dobbie KE, Ball BC, Bakken LR, Sitaula BK, Hansen S, Brumme R, Borken W, Christensen S, Prieme A, Fowler D, Macdonald JA, Skiba U, Klemedtsson L, Kasimir-Klemedtsson A, Degorska A, Orlanski P (2000) Oxidation of atmospheric methane in Northern European soils, comparison with other ecosystems, and uncertainties in the global terrestrial sink. Glob Change Biol 6:791–803Google Scholar
  182. Smith KA, Ball T, Conen F, Dobbie KE, Massheder J, Rey A (2003) Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. Eur J Soil Sci 54:779–791Google Scholar
  183. Sparks DL (1995) Environmental soil chemistry. Academic Press, New York, p 267Google Scholar
  184. Steudler PA, Bowden RD, Mellilo JM, Aber JD (1989) Influence of nitrogen fertilization on methane uptake in temperate forest soils. Nature 341:314–316Google Scholar
  185. Steudler PA, Garcia-Montiel DC, Piccolo MC, Neill C, Melillo JM, Feigl BJ, Cerri CC (2002) Trace gas responses of tropical forest and pasture soils to N and P fertilization. Glob Biogeochem Cy 16:1023Google Scholar
  186. Szilas CP, Borggaard OK, Hansen HCB, Rauer J (1998) Potential iron and phosphate mobilization during flooding of soil material. Water Air Soil Pollut 106:97–109Google Scholar
  187. Taylor BE (1983) Assays of microbial nitrogen transformation, pp 809–837. In: Carpenter EJ, Capone DG (eds) Nitrogen in the marine environment. Academic Press, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  188. Teepe R, Brumme R, Beese F, Ludwig B (2004) Nitrous oxide emission and methane consumption following compaction of forest soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:605–611Google Scholar
  189. Thirukkumaran CM, Parkinson D (2000) Microbial respiration, biomass, metabiolic quotient and litter decomposition in a lodgepole pine forest floor amended with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. Soil Biol Biochem 32:59–66Google Scholar
  190. Tonon G, Sohi S, Francioso O, Ferrari E, Montecchio D, Gioacchini P, Ciavatta C, Panzacchi P, Powlson D (2010) Effect of soil pH on the chemical composition of organic matter in physically separated soil fractions in two broadleaf woodland sites at Rothamsted, UK. Eur J Soil Sci 61:970–979Google Scholar
  191. Tyree MC (2005) The short-term effects of fertilization on total soil CO2 efflux, heterotrophic, and autotrophic respiration of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). M.Sc. thesis Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg, Virginia.
  192. Tyree M, Seiler J, Maier C (2013) Site-specific forest management: matching genotypes and silviculture to optimize carbon sequestration. In: Guldin JM (ed) Proceedings of the 15th biennial southern silvicultural research conference. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-GTR-175. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, pp 343–348.
  193. Ullah S, Moore TR (2011) Biogeochemical controls on methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide fluxes from deciduous forest soils in eastern Canada. J Geophys Res-Biogeol (2005–2012) 116:G03. doi: 10.1029/2010JG001525
  194. US Climate Change Science Program (2008) Our changing planet. The US Climate Change Science Program for fiscal year 2008. A report by the Climate Change Science Program and the subcommittee on global change research, A supplement to the President’s budget for fiscal year 2008. Executive Office of the President of the United States, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  195. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (2010) U.S. forest and Carbon: Some important facts. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis. Forest Carbon Briefing Paper-12 Oct 2010.
  196. USEPA (2010) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from natural sources. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs,1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20460. EPA 430-R-10-001.
  197. USEPA (2012) Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2010. U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. Washington, DC.
  198. Vallack HW, Leronni V, Metcalfe DB, Högberg P, Ineson P, Subke JA (2012) Application of nitrogen fertilizer to a boreal pine forest has a negative impact on the respiration of ectomycorrhizal hyphae. Plant Soil 352:405–417Google Scholar
  199. Veldkamp E, Koehler B, Corre MD (2013) Indications of nitrogen-limited methane uptake in tropical forest soils. Biogeosciences Discussions 10(3):6007–6037Google Scholar
  200. Ventera RT, Groffman PM, Verchot LV (2003) Nitrogen oxide gas emissions from temperate forest soils receiving long-term nitrogen inputs. Glob Change Biol 9:346–357Google Scholar
  201. Verchot LV, Davidson EA, Cattanio JH, Ackerman IL, Erickson HE, Keller M (1999) Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen oxide emissions from soilsin eastern Amazonia. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 13:31–46Google Scholar
  202. Von Arnold K, Nilsson M, Hanell B, Weslien P, Klemedtsson L (2005) Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1059–1071Google Scholar
  203. Vose JM, Bolstad PV (2007) Biotic and abiotic factors regulating forest floor CO2 flux across a range of forest age classes in the southern Appalachians. Pedobiologia 50:577–587Google Scholar
  204. Wallenstein MD, McNulty S, Fernandez IJ, Boggs J, Schlesinger WH (2006) Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments. For Ecol Manag 222:459–468Google Scholar
  205. Wang ZP, Ineson P (2003) Methane oxidation in a temperate coniferous forest soil: effects of inorganic N. Soil Biol Biochem 35:427–433Google Scholar
  206. Wang C, Bond-Lamberty B, Gower ST (2003) Soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence. J Geophys Res 108(D3):8224. doi: 10.1029/2001JD000861 Google Scholar
  207. Watanabe MDB, Ortega E (2011) Ecosystem services and biogeochemical cycles on a global scale: valuation of water, carbon and nitrogen processes. Environ Sci Policy 14:594–604Google Scholar
  208. Weslien P, Klemedtsson AK, Borjesson G, Klemedtsson L (2009) Strong pH influence on N2O and CH4 fluxes from forested organic soils. Eur J Soil Sci 60:311–320Google Scholar
  209. Willison TW, Webster CP, Goulding KWT, Powlson DS (1995) Methane oxidation in temperate soils: effects of land-use and the chemical form of nitrogen fertilizer. Chemosphere 30:539–546Google Scholar
  210. Winjum JK, Dixon RK, Schroeder PE (1992) Estimating the global potential of forest and agroforest management practices to sequester carbon. Water Air Soil Poll 64:213–227Google Scholar
  211. Wood TE, Silver WL (2012) Strong spatial variability in trace gas dynamics following experimental drought in a humid tropical forest. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 26:GB3005. doi: 10.1029/2010GB004014
  212. Xu X, Inubushi K (2004) Effects of N sources and methane concentrations on methane uptake potential of a typical coniferous forest and its adjacent orchard soil. Biol Fertil Soils 40:215–221Google Scholar
  213. Xu X, Han L, Luo X, Han S (2011) Synergistic effects of nitrogen amendments and ethylene on atmospheric methane uptake under a temperate old-growth forest. Adv Atmos Sci 28:843–854Google Scholar
  214. Zhang W, Mo J, Zhou G, Gundersen P, Fang Y, Lu X, Zhang T, Dong S (2008a) Methane uptake responses to nitrogen deposition in three tropical forests in southern China. J Geophys Res 113:D11116. doi: 10.1029/2007jd009195 Google Scholar
  215. Zhang W, Mo J, Yu G, Fang Y, Li D, Lu X, Wang H (2008b) Emissions of nitrous oxide from three tropical forests in Southern China in response to simulated nitrogen deposition. Plant Soil 306:221–236Google Scholar
  216. Zona D, Janssens IA, Aubinet M, Gioli B, Vicca S, Fichot R, Ceulemans R (2013) Fluxes of the greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) above a short-rotation poplar plantation after conversion from agricultural land. Agric For Meteorol 169:100–110Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raj K. Shrestha
    • 1
  • Brian D. Strahm
    • 1
  • Eric B. Sucre
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Forest Resources and Environment ConservationVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Southern Timberlands TechnologyWeyerhaeuser NR CompanyVanceboroUSA

Personalised recommendations