New Forests

, Volume 43, Issue 5–6, pp 825–848 | Cite as

Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

  • Magnus Löf
  • Daniel C. Dey
  • Rafael M. Navarro
  • Douglass F. Jacobs


Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the current state-of-knowledge concerning mechanical site preparation for improved tree establishment when carried out in different forest restoration situations, point out critical research gaps and provide some recommendations for future directions. Mechanical site preparation often results in improved seedling survival and growth. However, if not intensive methods with much soil disturbance are used, it is a rather ineffective tool for controlling competing vegetation. Methods such as scarification, mounding and subsoiling also lead to multiple interactions among soil physical and chemical properties that affect plant survival and growth, and it may be difficult to determine the actual cause–effect relationship of any positive seedling responses. Most research to date on mechanical site preparation and plantation performance has been conducted using a few conifer tree species. Seedling responses differ among tree species and alternative species are often used during restoration compared to production forestry indicating a need for additional research for improved understanding. Several management objectives such as soil protection and increased biodiversity are many times relevant during forest restoration, and mechanical site preparation methods should be implemented carefully because they can have large impacts on the environment.


Afforestation Ecosystem management Rehabilitation Regeneration Sustainability 



The study was supported by scholarships from Stina Werners fund and from The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education offered to M. Löf during his visit at Purdue University, USA in the autumn of 2011. Support for R Navarro was received from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, program CGL2008-04503-CO3-02.


  1. Ahtiainen M (1992) The effects of forest clear-cutting and scarification on the water-quality of small brooks. Hydobiologia 243:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahtikoski A, Virpi A, Kari M (2010) Scots pine stand establishment with special emphasis on uncertainty and cost-effectiveness, the case of northern Finland. New For 40:69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albaladejo J (1990) Impact of the degradation processes on soil quality in arid Mediterranean environments. In: RubioJL, Rickson J (eds) Strategies to combat desertification in Mediterranean Europe. Commission of the European Communities, pp 193–215Google Scholar
  4. Alcázar J, Rothwell RL, Woodward PM (2002) Soil disturbance and the potential of erosion after mechanical site preparation. North J Appl For 19:5–13Google Scholar
  5. Allen JA, Keeland BD, Stanturf JA, Clewell AF, Kennedy HE Jr (2004) A guide to bottomland hardwood reforestation. USDA For Serv Southern Res Sta Gen Tech Rep 40Google Scholar
  6. Ammer C, Balandier P, Scott Bentsen N, Coll L, Löf M (2011) Forest vegetation management under debate: an introduction. Eur J For Res 130:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashby WC (1996) Red oak and black walnut growth increased with minesoil ripping. Int J Mining Reclam Environ 10:113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barberá G, Martínez-Fernández F, Alvarez-Rogel J, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (2005) Short- and intermediate-term effects of site and plant preparation techniques on reforestation of a semiarid ecosystem with Pinus halepensis Mill. New For 29:177–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bärring U (1965) Om fläckupptagningens betydelse och några andra problem vid plantering av tall och gran. Stud For Suec 24:80Google Scholar
  10. Bärring U (1967) Studier av metoder för plantering av gran och tall på åkermark i södra och mellersta Sverige. Stud For Suec 50:332Google Scholar
  11. Bergquist J, Löf M, Örlander G (2009) Effects of roe deer browsing and site preparation on performance of planted broadleaved and conifer seedlings when using temporary fences. Scand J For Res 24:308–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berry CR (1986) Subsoiling improves growth of trees on a variety of sites. In: Phillips DR (ed) Proceedings fourth biennial southern silvicultural research conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-42, USDA Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experimental Forest, Asheville, North Carolina. C, USA, pp 360–367Google Scholar
  13. Birkedal M, Fisher A, Karlsson M, Löf M, Madsen P (2009) Rodent impact on establishment of direct seeded beech and oak on forest land. Scand J For Res 24:298–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Birkedal M, Löf M, Olsson GE, Bergsten U (2010) Effects of granivorous rodents on direct seeding of oak and beech in relation to site preparation and sowing date. For Ecol Manage 259:2382–2389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blondel J, Aronson J (1999) Biology and wildlife of the mediterranean region. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Boateng JO, Heineman JL, Bedford L, Linnell Nemec AF, McClarnon J (2011) Twenty year site preparation effects on sub-boreal lodgepole pine performance. New For. doi: 10.1007/s11056-011-9292-6 Google Scholar
  17. Bocio I, Bruno Navarro F, Ripoll MA, Jiménez MN, De Símon E (2004) Holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) response to different soil preparation techniques applied to forestation in abandoned farmland. Ann Sci For 61:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradshaw AD, Hüttl RF (2001) Future mine site restoration involves a broader approach. Ecol Eng 17:87–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castillo V, González G, Mosch W, Navarro-Cano J, Conesa C, López F (2002) Seguimiento y Evaluación de los trabajos de restauración hidrológico-forestal. In: López F (ed) Seguimiento y evaluación de los efectos sobre el medio natural de la sequía y los procesos erosivos en la Región de Murcia. Consejería de Agricultura Agua y Medio Ambiente de la Región de Murcia, Murcia (Spain), pp 166–233Google Scholar
  20. Cogliastro A, Gagnon D, Bouchard A (1997) Is site preparation necessary for bur oak receiving post-planting weed control? Ann Sci For 54:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cortina J, Amat B, Castillo V, Fuentes D, Maestre F, Padilla F, Rojo L (2011) The restoration of vegetation cover in the semi-arid Iberian southeast. J Arid Environ 12:1377–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cuesta B, Villar-Salvador P, Puértolas J, Jacobs DF, Rey Benayas JM (2010) Why do large, nitrogen rich seedlings better resist stressful transplanting conditions? A physiological analysis in two functionally contrasting Mediterranean forest species. For Ecol Manage 260:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dey DC, Jacobs D, NcNabb K, Miller G, Baldwin V, Foster G (2008) Artificial regeneration of major oak (Quercus) species in the eastern United States—a review of the literature. For Sci 54(1):77–106Google Scholar
  24. Dolk Fröjd C, Norman P (2007) Uppföljning av skador på fornlämningar i skogsmark. Rapport 9. Skogsstyrelsens förlag, JönköpingGoogle Scholar
  25. du Toit B, Smith CW, Little KM, Boreham G, Pallet RN (2010) Intensive, site-specific silviculture: manipulating resource availability at establishment for improved stand productivity: a review of South African research. For Ecol Manage 259:1836–1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Edeso JM, Merino A, Gonzalez MJ, Marauri P (1999) Soil erosion under different harvesting management in steep forestlands from northern Spain. Land Degrad Dev 10:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Elie JG, Ruel JC, Lussier JM (2009) Effect of browsing, seedbed, and competition on the development of Yellow birch seedlings in high graded stands. North J Appl For 26:99–105Google Scholar
  28. Espelta JM, Retana J, Habrouk A (2003) An economic and ecological multi-criteria evaluation of reforestation methods to recover burned Pinus nigra forests in NE Spain. For Ecol Manage 180:185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gan J, Kolison SH Jr, Miller JH, Hargrove TM (1998) Effects of site preparation on timber and non-timber values of loblolly pine plantations. For Ecol Manage 107:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gardiner ES, Russell DR, Oliver M, Dorris LC Jr (2002) Bottomland hardwood afforestation: state of the art. In: Holland MM, Warren ML Jr, Stanturf JA (eds) Proceedings of a conference on sustainability of wetlands and water resources: how well can riverine wetlands continue to support society into the 21st century? Gen Tech Rep SRS-50. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, pp 75–86Google Scholar
  31. Gemmel P, Nilsson U, Welander T (1996) Development of oak and beech seedlings planted under varying Shelterwood densities and with different site preparation methods in southern Sweden. New For 12:141–161Google Scholar
  32. González-Rodrígues V, Navarro-Cerillo RM, Villar R (2011) Artificial regeneration with Quercus ilex L. and Quercus suber L. by direct seeding and planting in southern Spain. Ann Sci For 68:637–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Granhus A, Fjeld D (2008) Time consumption of planting after partial harvest. Silva Fennica 42:49–61Google Scholar
  34. Groninger JW, Baer SG, Babassana D-A, Allen DH (2004) Planted green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and herbaceous vegetation reponses to initial competition control during the first 3 years of afforestation. For Ecol Manage 189:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gwaze D, Johanson M, Hauser C (2007) Long-term soil and shortleaf pine responses to site preparation ripping. New For 34:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haeussler S, Bartemucci P, Bedford L (2004) Succession and resilience in boreal mixedwood plant communities 15-16 years after silvicultural site preparation. For Ecol Manage 199:349–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harrington CA (1999) Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation. New For 17:175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hartley MJ (2002) Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forests. Foe Ecol Manage 155:81–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hawkins CBD, Steele TW, Letchford T (2006) The economics of site preparation and the impacts of current forest policy: evidence from central British Columbia. Can J For Res 35:482–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Horsley SB (1985) Reforestation of orchard stands and savannahs on Pennsylvania’s Allegheny Plateau. North J Appl For 2:22–26Google Scholar
  41. Horsley SB (1991) Using Roundup and Oust to control interfering understories in Allegheny hardwood stands. USDA For Serv Northeastern For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep 148:281–290Google Scholar
  42. Ilisson T, Koster K, Vodde F, Jogiste K (2007) Regeneration development 4-5 years after a storm in Norway spruce dominated forests, Estonia. For Ecol Manage 250:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Iverson LR, Hutchinson TF, Prasad AM, Peters MP (2008) Thinning, fire, and oak regeneration across a heterogeneous landscape in the eastern U.S.: 7-year results. For Ecol Manage 255:3035–3050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jacobs DF, Ross-Davis AL, Davis AS (2004) Establishment success of conservation tree plantations in relation to silvicultural practices in Indiana, USA. New For 28:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jandl R, Lindner M, Vesterdal L, Bauwens B, Baritz R, Hagedorn F, Johnson DW, Minkkinen K, Byrne KA (2007) How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration? Geoderma 137:253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jobidon R, Roy V, Cyr G (2003) Net effect of competing vegetation on selected environmental conditions and performance of four seedling stock sizes after eight years in Québec (Canada). Ann Sci For 60:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johansson M-B (1994) The influence of soil scarification on the turn-over rate of slash needles and nutrient release. Scand J For Res 9:170–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson RL (1981) Oak seeding—it can work. South J Appl For 5:28–33Google Scholar
  49. Kabrick JM, Dey DC, Van Sambeek JW, Wallendorf M, Gold MA (2005) Soil properties and growth of swamp white oak and pin oak on bedded soils in the lower Missouri River floodplain. For Ecol Manage 204:315–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Karlsson A (1996) Initial seedling emergence of hairy birch and silver birch on abandoned fields following different site preparation regimes. New For 11:93–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Karlsson M (2001) Natural regeneration of broadleaved tree species in southern Sweden—effects of silvicultural treatments and seed dispersal from surrounding stands. Silvestria 196, PhD Thesis, SLU, Alnarp.Google Scholar
  52. Karlsson M, Nilsson U (2005) The effects of scarification and shelterwood treatments on naturally regenerated seedlings in southern Sweden. For Ecol Manage 205:183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kew GA, Mengler FC, Gilkes RJ (2007) Regolith strength, water retention, and implications for ripping and plant root growth in bauxite mine restoration. Restor Ecol 15:S54–S64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Knapp BO, Wang GG, Walker JL, Cohen S (2006) Effects of site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings in North Carolina. For Ecol Manage 226:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kost DA, Vimmerstedt JP, Brown JH (1998) Topsoiling, ripping, and fertilizing effects on tree growth and nutrition on calcareous minesoils. For Ecol Manage 103:307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kramer PJ, Boyer JS (1995) Water relations of plants and soils. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  57. Lhotka JM, Zaczek JJ (2003) Effects of scarification disturbance on the seedling and midstory layer in a successional mixed-oak forest. North J Appl For 20:85–91Google Scholar
  58. Löf M (2000) Influence of patch scarification and insect herbivory on growth and survival in Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L. Karst. and Quercus robur L. seedlings following a Norway spruce forest. For Ecol Manage 134:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Löf M, Birkedal M (2009) Direct seeding of Quercus robur L. for reforestation: The influence of mechanical site preparation and sowing date on early growth of seedlings. For Ecol Manage 258:704–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Löf M, Isacsson G, Rydberg D, Welander NT (2004) Herbivory by the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) and short-snouted weevils (Strophosoma melanogrammum Forst. and Otiorhynchus scaber L.) during the conversion of a wind-thrown Norway spruce forest into a mixed-species plantation. For Ecol Manage 190:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Löf M, Rydberg D, Bolte A (2006) Mounding site preparation for forest restoration: survival and growth responses in Quercus robur L. seedlings. For Ecol Manage 232:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Londo AJ, Mroz GD (2001) Bucket mounding as a mechanical site preparation technique in wetlands. North J Appl For 18(1):7–13Google Scholar
  63. Lundmark JE (1988) Skogsmarkens ekologi: Ståndortsanpassat skogsbruk. Del 2, tillämpning. Skogsstyrelsen, JönköpingGoogle Scholar
  64. Luoranen J, Rikala R (2012) Field performance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings planted in disc trenched or mounded sites over an extended planting season. New For. doi: 10.1007/s11056-012-9307-y
  65. Madsen P (1995) Effects of soil water content, fertilization light, weed competition and seedbed type on natural regeneration of beech (Fagus sylvatica). For Ecol Manage 72:251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Madsen P, Jensen FA, Fodgaard S (2005) Afforestation in Denmark. In: Stanturf JA, Madsen P (eds) Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 211–224Google Scholar
  67. Maestre F, Cortina J (2004) Are Pinus halepensis plantations useful as a restoration tool in degraded semiarid Mediterranean areas? For Ecol Manage 198:303–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Margolis HA, Brand DG (1990) An ecophysiological basis for understanding plantation establishment. Can J For Res 20:375–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McCreary D, Cañellas I (2005) Restoration of oak woodlands in Mediterranean ecosystems. In: Stanturf JA, Madsen P (eds) Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 253–266Google Scholar
  70. Miller JH (1993) Oak plantation establishment using mechanical, burning and herbicide treatments. In: Loftis DL, McGee CE (eds) Oak regeneration, serious problems, practical recommendations. Gen Tech Rep SE-84, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC, USA, pp 264–289Google Scholar
  71. Miwa M, Aust WM, Burger JA, Patterson SC, Carter EA (2004) Wet-weather harvesting and site preparation effects on coastal plain sites: a review. South J Appl For 28:137–151Google Scholar
  72. Moffat AJ, Bending NAD (2000) Replacement of soil and soil-forming materials by loose tipping in reclamation to woodland. Soil Use Manage 16:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Munson AD, Margolis HA, Brand DG (1993) Intensive silvicultural treatments: impacts on soil fertility and planted conifer response. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:246–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Navarro Cerrillo RM, Frageiro B, Ceaceros C, del Campo A, de Prado R (2005) Establishment of Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota Desf. Samp. using different weed control strategies in Southern Spain. Ecol Eng 25:332–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Navarro-Garnica M (1975) Técnicas de Forestación. Ministerio de Agricultura, ICONAGoogle Scholar
  76. Neckelmann J (1976) Soil preparation and plant development on sandy soils in Juland. Dansk Skovforenings Tidskrift 61:4–34Google Scholar
  77. Nilsson U, Örlander G (1995) Effects of regeneration methods on drought damage to newly planted Norway spruce seedlings. Can J For Res 25:790–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nyland RD (1996) Silvicultural concepts and applications. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Örlander G, Nilsson U (1999) Effects of reforestation methods on pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) damage and seedling survival. Scand J For Res 14:341–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Örlander G, Gemmel P, Hunt J (1990) Site preparation: a Swedish overview. FRDA report 105. Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  81. Örlander G, Nordborg F, Gemmel P (2002) Effects of complete deep-soil cultivation on initial forest stand development. Stud For Suec 213:22Google Scholar
  82. Otsamo A, Adjers G, Hadi TS, Kuusipalo J, Tuomela K, Vuokko R (1995) Effect of site preparation and initial fertilization on the establishment and growth of 4 plantation tree species used in reforestation of Imperata Cylindrica (L) Beauv dominated grasslands. For Ecol Manage 73:271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Palacios G, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, del Campo A, Toral M (2009) Site preparation, stock quality and planting date effect on early establishment of Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) seedlings. Ecol Eng 35:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Paquette A, Bouchard A, Cogliastro A (2006) Survival and growth of under-planted trees: a meta-analysis across four biomes. Ecol Appl 16:1575–1589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Parotta JA, Knowles OH (2001) Restoring tropical forests on lands mined for bauxite: examples from the Brazilian Amazon. Ecol Eng 17:219–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Patterson WB, Adams JC (2003) Soil, hydroperiod and bedding effects on restoring bottomland hardwoods on flood-prone agricultural lands in North Louisiana, USA. Forestry 76:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pausas J, Bladé C, Valdecantos A, Seva J, Fuentes D, Alloza J, Vilagrosa A, Bautista S, Cortina J, Vallejo V (2004) Pines and oaks in the restoration of Mediterranean landscapes: new perspectives for an old practices. Plant Ecol 209:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Perrow MR, Davy AJ (eds) (2008) Handbook of ecological restoration. Volume 2: Restoration in practice. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  89. Peters R (1997) Beech forests. Geobotany. Kluwer, Dordrecht, vol 24Google Scholar
  90. Petersson M, Örlander G, Nordlander G (2005) Soil features affecting damage to conifer seedlings by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis. Forestry 78:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Petritan IC, von Lüpke B, Petritan AM (2011) Effects of root trenching of overstorey Norway spruce (Picea abies) on growth and biomass of underplanted beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) saplings. Eur J For Res 130:813–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Prévost M (1992) Effets du scarifiage sur les propriétés du sol, la croissance des semis et la competition: Revue des connaissances actuelles et perspectives de recherches au Québec. Ann For Sci 49:277–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Prévost M (1997) Effects of scarification on seedbed coverage and natural regeneration after a group seed-tree cutting in a black spruce (Picea mariana) stand. For Ecol Manage 94:219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Puigdefábregas J (1998) Ecological impacts of global change on drylands and their implications for desertification. Land Degrad Dev 9:393–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Querejeta JI, Roldán A, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (2000) Soil physical properties and moisture content affected by site preparation in the afforestation of a semiarid rangeland. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:2087–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Querejeta JI, Roldán A, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (2001) Soil water availability improved by site preparation in a Pinus halepensis afforestation under semiarid climate. For Ecol Manage 149:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rathfon RA, Lichti NI, Swihart RK (2008) Disking and mid- and understory removal following an above-average acorn crop in three mature oak forests in southern Indiana. USDA For Serv Northern Res Sta Gen Tech Rep P-24, pp 59–69Google Scholar
  98. Rebbeck J (2012) Fire management and invasive plants in oak ecosystems. USDA For Serv Northern Res Sta Gen Tech Rep (in press)Google Scholar
  99. Ritari A, Lähde E (1978) Effects of site preparation on physical properties of the soil in a thick-humus spruce stand. Comm Inst For Fenn 92(7)Google Scholar
  100. Rojo L, García F, Martínez J, Martínez A (2002) Management plan to combat desertification in the Guadalentin River basin: In: Geeson N, Brandt C, Thornes J (eds) Mediterranean desertification: a mosaic of processes and responses. Wiley, Chichester, pp 303–317Google Scholar
  101. Roldan A, Querejeta JI, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (1996) Survival and growth of Pinus halepensis Miller seedlings in a semiarid environment after forest soil transfer, terracing and organic amendments. Ann Sci For 53:1099–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Russell DR Jr, Hodges JD, Ezell AW (1997) An evaluation of hardwood reforestation methods on previously farmed lands in central Alabama. In: Waldrop TA (ed) Proceedings ninth biennial southern silvicultural research conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-20. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, pp 272–276Google Scholar
  103. Seifert JR, Woeste K (2002) Evaluation of four herbicides and tillage for weed control on 1-0 planted tree seedlings. North J Appl For 19(3):101–105Google Scholar
  104. Seifert JR, Pope PE, Fischer BC (1985) The effects of three levels of site preparation on planted swamp chestnut oak on a poorly drained site. USDA FS Southern For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep SO-54, pp 53–56Google Scholar
  105. Self AB, Ezell AW, Londo AJ, Hodges JD (2010) Evaluation of Nuttall oak and cherrybark oak survival by planting stock and site preparation treatment type in a WRP planting on a retired agricultural site. In: Stanturf JA (ed) Proceedings fourteenth biennial southern silvicultural research conference. Gen Tech Rep SRS-121. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, pp 159–163Google Scholar
  106. Sharma KD, Kumar P, Gough LP, Sanfilipo JR (2004) Rehabilitation of a lignite mine-disturbed area in the Indian desert. Land Degrad Develop 15:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Showalter JM, Burger JA, Zipper CE (2010) Hardwood seedling growth on different mine spoil types with and without topsoil amendment. J Environ Qual 39:483–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Simmons ME, Wu XB, Whisenant SG (2011) Plant and soil responses to created microtopography and soil treatments in bottomland hardwood forest restoration. Restor Ecol 19:136–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Skousen J, Gorman J, Pena-Yewtukhiw E, King J, Stewart J, Emerson P, DeLong C (2009) Hardwood tree survival in heavy ground cover on reclaimed land in West Virginia: mowing and ripping effects. J Environ Qual 38:1400–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith CW, Little KM, Norris CH (2001) The effect of land preparation at reestablishment on the productivity of fast growing hardwoods in South Africa. Austr For 64:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Söderström V (1976) Analys av markberedningseffekterna vid plantering på några färska hyggen. Sveriges Skogsvårdsförbunds Tidskrift 2(3):58–333Google Scholar
  112. Söderström V, Bäcke J, Byfalk R, Jonsson C (1978) Jämförelse mellan plantering i jordrabatter och efter andra markberedningsmetoder. Rapporter och uppsatser, nr 11. Institutionen för Skogsskötsel, Skogshögskolan, UmeåGoogle Scholar
  113. Spiecker H, Hansen J, Klimo E, Sterba H, Skovsgaard JP, von Teuffel K (eds) (2004) Norway spruce conversion—options and consequences. EFI Research Report 18. Brill Academic Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  114. Stanturf JA (2005) What is forest restoration? In: Stanturf JA, Madsen P (eds) Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  115. Stanturf JA, Madsen P (eds) (2005) Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  116. Stanturf JA, Schoenholtz SH, Schweitzer CJ, Shepard JP (2001) Ashieving restoration success: myths in bottomland hardwood forests. Restor Ecol 9:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stanturf JA, Conner WH, Gardiner ES, Schweitzer CJ, Ezell AW (2004) Practice and perspective: recognizing and overcoming difficult site conditions for afforestation of bottomland hardwoods. Ecol Restor 22:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Suadicani K (2002) From plantation towards close-to-nature forestry—operational efficiency of shelterwood regeneration and selection management in Norway spruce. Doctoral thesis. Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning. Hørsholm, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  119. Sutton RF (1993) Mounding site preparation: a review of European and North American experience. New For 7:151–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tamm CO (1991) Nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems, ecological studies, no 81. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Thiffault N, Roy V (2011) Living without herbicides in Québec (Canada): historical context, current strategy, research and challenges in forest vegetation management. Eur J For Res 130:117–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Thiffault N, Titus BD, Moroni MT (2010) Silviculture and planted species interact to influence reforestation success on a Kalmia-dominated site—a 15 year study. For Chron 86:234–242Google Scholar
  123. Thornton CW, Matlack GR (2002) Long-term disturbance effects in the nematode communities of south Mississippi woodlands. J Nematol 34:88–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Torstensdotter Åhlin I (2001) Försök med markberedning inom områden med fossil åkermark i västra Götalands, Jönköpings, Kronobergs och Uppsala län—ett pilotprojekt. Riksantikvariämbetet, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  125. Uotila K, Rantala J, Saksa T, Harstela P (2010) Effect of soil preparation method on economic result of Norway spruce regeneration chain. Silva Fenn 44:511–524Google Scholar
  126. Van Lerberghe P, Balleux P (2001) Afforesting agricultural land. Institut Pour le Développement Forestier, ParisGoogle Scholar
  127. Varelides C, Kritikos T (1995) Effect of site preparation and fertilization on Pinus pinaster survival and height growth on 3 sites in northern Greece. For Ecol Manage 77:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weber N (2005) Afforestation in Europe: lessons learned, challenges remaining. In: Stanturf JA, Madsen P (eds) Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 121–135Google Scholar
  129. Willoughby I, Balandier P, Scott-Bentsen N, McCarthy N, Claridge J (eds) (2009) Forest vegetation management in Europe: current practice and future requirements. Cost Office, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  130. Yildiz O, Esen D, Sarginci M (2009) Long-term productivity effects of different Rhododendron control methods in eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) ecosystems in western Black sea region of Turkey. Soil Use Manage 25:28–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zamith LR, Scarano FR (2010) Restoration of coastal swamp forest in southeast Brazil. Wetlands Ecol Manage 18:435–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zipper CE, Burger JA, Skousen JG, Angel PN, Barton D, Davis V, Franklin JA (2011) Restoring forests and associated ecosystem services on Appalachian coal surface mines. Environ Manage 47:751–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magnus Löf
    • 1
  • Daniel C. Dey
    • 2
  • Rafael M. Navarro
    • 3
  • Douglass F. Jacobs
    • 4
  1. 1.Southern Swedish Forest Research CenterSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesAlnarpSweden
  2. 2.U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research StationColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.School of Agricultural and Forestry EngineeringUniversity of CordobaCordobaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration CenterPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations