Advertisement

New Forests

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 123–135 | Cite as

A suggested approach for design of oak (Quercus L.) regeneration research considering regional differences

  • Daniel C. Dey
  • Martin A. Spetich
  • Dale R. Weigel
  • Paul S. Johnson
  • David L. Graney
  • John M. Kabrick
Article

Abstract

Research on oak (Quercus L.) regeneration has generally consisted of small-scale studies of treatments designed to favor oak, including consideration of site quality and topographic effects on oak regeneration. However, these experiments have not consistently factored in broader-scale ecological differences found in the eastern United States. Oak regeneration experiments should be replicated at appropriate ecological scales to address the similarities and differences in regeneration following prescribed silvicultural treatments among ecological units. Patterns in oak regeneration can be better understood in an ecological context by considering how oak species interact in the differing physical environments and are able to maintain dominance in changing complexes of competing vegetation among the selected eco-units. Our understanding of oak regeneration response to specific silvicultural practices and our ability to model regeneration is improved when we use replication, blocking, or factorial deployment of relatively small-scale (0.5–1.0 ha) treatment plots within an ecological classification system. We present an example of this approach to understanding oak regeneration dynamics in a synthesis of research to regenerate northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) by underplanting shelterwoods in Arkansas, Missouri and Indiana. We summarize important considerations to guide the design of future research in oak regeneration.

Keywords

Oak regeneration Experimental design Ecological classification Modeling Forest ecology Silviculture 

References

  1. Bailey RG (1995) Descriptions of the ecoregions of the United States. USDA For Serv Washington, DC Misc. Publ. 1391Google Scholar
  2. Bailey RG (1997) Ecoregions of North America, 1:15,000,000 scale map (rev.). USDA For Serv, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey RG (1998) Ecoregions. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck DE, Hooper RM (1986) Development of a southern Appalachian hardwood stand after clearcutting. S J Appl For 10:168–172Google Scholar
  5. Burns RM, Honkala BH (1990) Silvics of North America: Hardwoods. Agric Handb 654, vol 2. USDA For Serv, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Carmean WH (1971) Site index curves for black, white, scarlet and chestnut oaks in the Central States. USDA For Serv North Central For Exp Sta Res Pap NC-62Google Scholar
  7. Carvell KL, Tryon EH (1961) The effect of environmental factors on the abundance of oak regeneration beneath mature oak stands. For Sci 7:98–105Google Scholar
  8. Clark FB (1993) An historical perspective on oak regeneration. In: Loftis DL, McGee CE (eds) Proc Oak regeneration: serious problems, practical recommendations. 8–10 September 1992. Knoxville, TN. USDA For Serv Southeastern For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep SE-84. pp 3–13Google Scholar
  9. Coffman MS, Alyanak E, Kotar J, Ferris JE (1983) Field guide, habitat classification system for the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northeast Wisconsin. Cooperative Research on Forest Soils, School of Forestry and Wood Products. Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MIGoogle Scholar
  10. Dey DC (1991) A comprehensive Ozark regenerator. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ Missouri-ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Dey DC, Parker WC (1997) Overstory density affects field performance of underplanted red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Ontario. N J Appl For 14:120–125Google Scholar
  12. Dey DC, Ter-Mikaelian M, Johnson PS, Shifley SR (1996) User’s guide to ACORn: a comprehensive Ozark regeneration simulator. USDA For Serv North Central For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep NC-180Google Scholar
  13. Gammon AD, Rudolph VJ, Arend JL (1960) Regeneration following clearcutting of oak during a seed year. J For 58:711–715Google Scholar
  14. Gingrich SF (1967) Measuring and evaluating stocking and stand density in upland hardwood forests in the Central States. For Sci 13:38–53Google Scholar
  15. Graney DL (1977) Site index predictions for red oaks and white oaks in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas. USDA For Serv Southern For Exp Sta Res Pap SO-139Google Scholar
  16. Hannah PR (1987) Regeneration methods for oaks. N J Appl For 4:97–101Google Scholar
  17. Hix DM, Lorimer CG (1991) Early stand development on former oak sites in southwestern Wisconsin. For Ecol Manage 42:169–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson PS (1976) Modal development of regeneration in clearcut red oak stands in the Driftless Area. In: Fralish JS, Weaver GT, Schlesinger RC (eds) Proc Central hardwood forest conf 17–19 October 1976. Carbondale, IL. Dept Forestry Southern Illinois Univ pp 455–475Google Scholar
  19. Johnson PS (1993) Perspectives on the ecology and silviculture of oak-dominated forests in the Central and Eastern States. USDA For Serv North Central For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep NC-153Google Scholar
  20. Johnson PS, Jacobs RD (1981) Northern red oak regeneration after preherbicided clearcutting and shelterwood removal cutting. USDA For Serv North Central For Exp Sta Res Pap NC-202Google Scholar
  21. Johnson PS, Shifley SR, Rogers R (2002) The ecology and silviculture of oaks. CABI Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson PS, Jacobs RD, Martin AJ, Godell ED (1989) Regenerating northern red oak: three successful case histories. N J Appl For 6:174–178Google Scholar
  23. Kotar J, Kovach A, Loecy CT (1988) Field guide to forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin. Dept Forestry University of Wisconsin-MadisonGoogle Scholar
  24. Loftis DL (1983) Regenerating southern Appalachian mixed hardwoods with the shelterwood method. S J Appl For 7:212–217Google Scholar
  25. Loftis DL (1990a) A shelterwood method for regenerating red oak in the southern Appalachians. For Sci 36:917–929Google Scholar
  26. Loftis DL (1990b) Predicting post-harvest performance of advance red oak reproduction in the southern Appalachians. For Sci 36:908–916Google Scholar
  27. Lorimer CG (1993) Causes of the oak regeneration problem. In: Loftis DL, McGee CE (eds) Proc Oak regeneration: serious problems, practical recommendations. 8–10 September 1992. Knoxville, TN. USDA For Serv Southeastern For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep SE-84 pp 14–39Google Scholar
  28. Marquis DA, Brenneman R (1981) The impact of deer on forest vegetation in Pennsylvania. USDA For Serv Northeastern For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep NE-65Google Scholar
  29. McNab WH, Avers PE (comps) (1994) Ecological subregions of the United States: section descriptions. USDA For Serv Admin Publ WO-WSA-5Google Scholar
  30. McQuilkin RA (1974) Site index prediction table for black, scarlet, and white oaks in southeastern Missouri. USDA For Serv North Central For Exp Sta Res Pap NC-108Google Scholar
  31. Nigh TA, Schroeder WA (2002) Atlas of Missouri ecoregions. Missouri Dept Conservation, Jefferson City, MOGoogle Scholar
  32. Nigh T, Buck C, Grabner J, Kabrick J, Meinert D (2000) An ecological classification system for the Current River Hills subsection. Draft Manual. Missouri Dept Conservation, Jefferson City, MOGoogle Scholar
  33. Oliver CD, Burkhardt EC, Skojac DA (2005) The increasing scarcity of red oaks in Mississippi River floodplain forests: influence of the residual overstory. For Ecol Manage 210:393–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ristau TE, Horsley SB (2006) When is pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) a problem in Allegheny hardwoods? N J Appl For 23:204–210Google Scholar
  35. Rooney TP, Waller DM (2003) Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer in forest ecosystems. For Ecol Manage 181:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sander IL (1971) Height growth of new oak sprouts depends on size of advance reproduction. J For 69:809–811Google Scholar
  37. Sander IL (1979) Regenerating oaks with the shelterwood system. In: Holt HA, Fischer BC (eds) Proc 1979 JS Wright forestry conf 22–23 Feb 1979. West Lafayette, IN. Purdue Res Foundation, Purdue Univ pp 54–60 Google Scholar
  38. Sander IL, Graney DL (1993) Regenerating oaks in the Central States. In: Loftis DL, McGee CE (eds) Proc Oak regeneration: serious problems, practical recommendations. 8–10 September 1992. Knoxville, TN. USDA For Serv Southeastern For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep SE–84 pp 174–183Google Scholar
  39. Sander IL, Johnson PS, Rogers R (1984) Evaluating oak advance reproduction in the Missouri Ozarks. USDA For Serv North Central For Exp Sta Res Pap NC-251Google Scholar
  40. Schlesinger RC, Sander IL, Davidson KR (1993) Oak regeneration potential increased by shelterwood treatments. N J Appl For 10:149–153Google Scholar
  41. Schuler TM, Miller GW (1995) Shelterwood treatments fail to establish oak reproduction on mesic forest sites in West Virginia—10 year results. In: Gottschalk KW, Fosbroke SLC (eds) Proc 10th Central hardwood forest conf USDA For Serv Northeastern For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep NE-197 pp 375–387Google Scholar
  42. Smith HC (1993) Regenerating oaks in the Central Appalachians. In: Loftis DL, McGee CE (eds) Proc Oak regeneration: serious problems, practical recommendations. 8–10 September 1992. Knoxville, TN. USDA For Serv Southeastern For Exp Sta Gen Tech Rep SE-84 pp 211–221Google Scholar
  43. Spetich MA, Dey DC, Johnson PS, Graney DL (2002) Competitive capacity of Quercus rubra L planted in Arkansas’ Boston Mountains. For Sci 48:504–517Google Scholar
  44. VanKley JE, Parker GR, Franzmeier DP, Randolph JC (1995) Field guide: ecological classification of the Hoosier National Forest and surrounding areas of Indiana. USDA For Serv Eastern Region. Hoosier National Forest, Bedford, INGoogle Scholar
  45. Weigel DR (1999) Oak planting success varies among ecoregions in the Central Hardwood Region. In: Stringer JW, Loftis DL (eds) Proc 12th Central hardwood forest conf USDA For Serv Southern Res Sta Gen Tech Rep SRS-24 pp 9–16Google Scholar
  46. Weigel DR, Johnson PS (1998) Planting northern red oak in the Ozark Highlands: a shelterwood prescription. USDA For Serv North Central For Exp Sta Tech Brief TB-NC-6Google Scholar
  47. Weigel DR, Johnson PS (2000) Planting red oak under oak/yellow-poplar shelterwoods: a provisional prescription. USDA For Serv North Central Res Sta Gen Tech Rep NC-210Google Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel C. Dey
    • 1
  • Martin A. Spetich
    • 2
  • Dale R. Weigel
    • 3
  • Paul S. Johnson
    • 4
  • David L. Graney
    • 4
  • John M. Kabrick
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research StationColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research StationHot SpringsUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Forest Service, Hoosier National ForestBedfordUSA
  4. 4.U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research StationHot SpringsUSA

Personalised recommendations