New Forests

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 257–279 | Cite as

Influence of herbicides and felling, fertilization, and prescribed fire on longleaf pine establishment and growth through six growing seasons

  • James D. Haywood


Recovery of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) is necessary to arrest the decline of many associated plants and animals, and the establishment of longleaf pine on much of its original range requires artificial regeneration and diligence. In central Louisiana, USA, two fertilization levels (No [NF] or Yes [F-36 kg/ha N and 40 kg/ha P]) in combination with three vegetation treatments (check, two prescribed fires [PF], or multi-year vegetation control by herbicidal and mechanical means [IVM]) were applied to container-grown longleaf pine plantings in two studies. In Study 1 (grass dominated), 6-year-old longleaf pine survival was 52% on the F–checks, 78% on the F–PF plots, and averaged 93% on the other four treatment combinations. Longleaf pine trees on the IVM plots (3.4 m) were significantly taller than on the other two vegetation treatments, and trees on the PF plots (1.8 m) were taller than trees on the check plots (1.2 m). In Study 2 (brush dominated), survival averaged 65% across the six-treatment combinations after 6 years. The longleaf pine trees were 4.7 m tall on the IVM plots and averaged 3.9 m tall on the check and PF plots. Fertilization increased P concentrations in the soil and longleaf pine foliage, while fertilization did not significantly affect longleaf pine height growth. Native fertility was not apparently limiting longleaf pine development contrary to prior research recommendations for these soils. In both studies, the IVM treatment reduced early herbaceous competition and the number and height of arborescent plants. The PF treatment reduced arborescent plant height on the grassy site where fires were more intense than on the brushy site.


Brown-spot needle blight Container seedlings Diammonium phosphate Hexazinone Mycosphaerella dearnessii M. E. Barr Pinus palustris P. Mill. Sethoxydim Triclopyr 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceSouthern Research Station, RWU-4111, Alexandria Forestry CenterPinevilleUSA

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