New Forests

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 453–467 | Cite as

Effect of Scleroderma Spore Density and Age on Mycorrhiza Formation and Growth of Containerized Eucalyptus globulus and E. urophylla Seedlings

  • Ying Long Chen
  • Bernard Dell
  • Nicholas Malajczuk


Greenhouse trials with containerized Eucalyptus globulus and E. urophylla seedlings were made to determine effective inoculum spore densities (Scleroderma cepa from temperate Australia, and S. citrinum from sub-tropical China) and spore storage conditions (fresh spores or spores stored for 5 years at room temperature or at 4 °C; S. albidum, S. areolatum and S. cepa from Western Australia). Inoculation with 106 or 108 spores/seedling increased eucalypt growth by up to 46% in height and 42% in dry weight compared to non-inoculated seedlings at 12 weeks after inoculation. Mycorrhizal formation was poor at 102 spores/seeding. Spores stored at 4 °C for 5 years were as effective in forming mycorrhizas as freshly collected spores when a standard density of 106 spores/seedling was applied. It is recommended that spore densities ≥104 be used for inoculation of containerised eucalypts and that spores be stored at 4 °C until use.


Ectomycorrhiza Eucalypt Nursery Scleroderma Spore density Spore storage 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aggangan, N.S., Dell, B., Malajczuk, N., delaCruz, R.E. 1996Soil fumigation and phosphorus supply affect the formation of Pisolithus Eucalyptus urophylla ectomycorrhizas in two acid Philippine soilsPlant Soil180259266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bettenay, E., McArthur, W.M., Hingston, F.J. 1960The soil associations of the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia Soils and land use series no. 35 Division of SoilsCSIROMelbourneGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, A.G., Nambiar, E.K.S., Cossalter, C. 1997Plantations for the tropics – their roleextent and natureNambiar, E.K.S.Brown, A.G. eds. Tropical Plantation ForestsACIARCanberra119Google Scholar
  4. Brundrett, M., Bougher, N., Dell, B., Grove, G., Malajczuk, N. 1996Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agricultureACIARCanberra374Monograph 32.Google Scholar
  5. Burgess, T., Malajczuk, N., Grove, T.S. 1993The ability of 16 ectomycorrhizal fungi to increase growth and phosphorus uptake of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and E. diversicolor F. Muell Plant Soil153155164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castellano, M.A., Molina, R. 1989MycorrhizaLandis, T.D.Tinus, R.W.McDonald, S.E.Barnett, J.P. eds. The Biological Component: Nursery Pests and MycorrhizaeUSDA For. ServWashington D.C101167Vol. 5, The Container Tree Nursery Manual. Agric. Handbk. 674.Google Scholar
  7. Castellano, M.A., Trappe, J.M., Molina, R. 1985Inoculation of container-grown Douglas-fir seedlings with basidiospores of Rhizopogon vinicolor R. colossus: effects of fertility and spore application rateCan. J. For. Res.151013Google Scholar
  8. Chen, Y.L. 2002Mycorrhizal synthesis of Tuber melanosporum on Castanopsis Edible Fungi of China211517Google Scholar
  9. Chen, Y.L., Brundrett, M.C., Dell, B. 2000aEffects of ectomycorrhizas and vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizas, alone or in competition, on root colonization and growth of Eucalyptus globulus E. urophylla New Phytol.146545556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen Y.L., Gong M.Q., Wang F.Z., Chen Y., Brundrett M. and Dell B. 1998. Diversity of VA mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi in Eucalyptus plantations in southern China. In: Programme and Abstracts of Second International Conference on Mycorrhiza. Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 42–43.Google Scholar
  11. Chen, Y.L., Gong, M.Q., Xu, D.P., Zhong, C.L., Wang, F.Z., Chen, Y. 2000bScreening and inoculant efficacy of Australian ectomycorrhizal fungi on Eucalyptus urophylla in the fieldFor. Res.13569576Google Scholar
  12. Chevalier, G., Frochot, H. 2000La Truffe De Bourgogne (Tuber unicinatum Chatin)INRACedex, France148Google Scholar
  13. Dell B. and Malajczuk N. 1995. Fertiliser requirements for ectomycorrhizal eucalypts in forest nurseries and field plantings in Southern China. In: Brundrett M., Dell B., Malajczuk N. and Gong M.Q.Mycorrhizas for Plantation Forestry in Asia. ACIAR Monograph 62 pp. 96–100.Google Scholar
  14. Dell, B., Malajczuk, N., Dunstan, W.A. 2002Persistence of some Australian Pisolithus species introduced into eucalypt plantations in ChinaFor. Ecol. Manage.169271281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dell, B., Malajczuk, N., Bougher, N.L., Thomson, G. 1995Development and function of Pisolithus Scleroderma ectomycorrhizas formed in vivo with Allocasuarina Casuarina Eucalyptus Mycorrhiza5129138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duñabeitia, M.K., Hormilla, S., Garcia-Plazaola, J.I., Txarterina, K., Arteche, U., Becerril, J.M. 2004Differential responses of three fungal species to environmental factors and their role in the mycorrhization of Pinus radiata DDon. Mycorrhiza141118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A. 1984Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research (2nd edn.)John Wiley & SonsNew York680Google Scholar
  18. Gong, M.Q., Chen, Y.L., Zhong, C.L. 1997Mycorrhizal Research and ApplicationChina Forestry Publishing HouseBeijing223Google Scholar
  19. González-Ochoa, A.I., Heras, J. de las, Torres, P., Sánchez-Gómez, E. 2003Mycorrhization of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinaster Aiton seedlings in two commercial nurseriesAnn. For. Sci.604348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gusmailina, P.G., Komarayati, S., Rostiwati, T. 2001Alternative on the utilization of activated bamboo and candle nut charcoal as a plant's soil conditioningBuletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan19185199Google Scholar
  21. Hardy, G.J., Burgess, T., Dell, B. 2003Potential threats of plant pathogens to eucalyptus plantations in ChinaWei, R.P.Xu, D. eds. Eucalyptus Plantations, ResearchManagement and DevelopmentProceedings of the International Symposium of Eucalypts, GuangzhouChinaWorld ScientificSingapore358366Google Scholar
  22. Kuek, C., Tommerup, I.C., Malajczuk, N. 1992Hydrogel bead inocula for the production of ectomycorrhizal eucalypts for plantationsMycol. Res.96273277Google Scholar
  23. Lu, X.H. 1999Inoculation of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. with spores of ectomycorrhizal fungi. PhD ThesisMurdoch UniversityAustraliaGoogle Scholar
  24. Lu, X.H., Malajczuk, N., Dell, B. 1998Mycorrhiza formation and growth of Eucalyptus globulus seedlings inoculated with spores of various ectomycorrhizal fungiMycorrhiza88186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lu, X.H., Malajczuk, N., Brundrett, M., Dell, B. 1999Fruiting of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi under blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations of different ages in Western AustraliaMycorrhiza8255261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Malajczuk, N., Grove, T.S., Bougher, N.L, Dell, B., Gong, M.Q. 1994Ectomycorrhizas and nutrients – their importance to eucalypts in ChinaBrown,  eds. Australian Tree Species Research in ChinaACIAR Proceedings 48Canberra132139Google Scholar
  27. Martin, T.P., Harris, J.R., Eaton, G.K., Miller, O.K. 2003The efficacy of ectomycorrhizal colonization of pin and scarlet oak in nursery productionJ. Environ. Horticult.214550Google Scholar
  28. Marx, D.H. 1976Synthesis of ectomycorrhizae on loblolly pine seedling with basidiospores of Pisolithus tinctorius For. Sci.221320Google Scholar
  29. Marx, D.H. 1980Ectomycorrhizal fungus inoculation: a tool for improving forestation practicesMikola, P. eds. Tropical Mycorrhiza ResearchOxford University PressNew York1371Google Scholar
  30. Marx D.H. and Cordell C.E. 1990. Development of Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizae on loblolly pine from spores sprayed at different times and rates. USDA Forest Service Research Note Southeastern Forest Experiment Station SE-356.Google Scholar
  31. Marx, D.H., Maul, S.B., Cordell, C.E. 1992Application of specific ectomycorrhizal fungi in world forestryLeatham, G.F. eds. Industrial MycologyChapman and HallNew York7898Google Scholar
  32. Marx, D.H., Cordell, C.E., Maul, S.B., Ruehle, J.L. 1989Ectomycorrhizal development on pine by Pisolithus tinctorius in bare-root and container seedling nurseries. II. Efficacy of various vegetative and spore inoculaNew Forests35766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marx, D.H., Murphy, M., Parrish, T., Marx, S., Haigler, D., Eckard, D. 1997Root response of mature live oaks in coastal South Carolina to root zone inoculations with ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculantsJ. Arboricult.23257263Google Scholar
  34. Mason, P.A., Ingleby, K., Munro, R.C., Wilson, J., Ibrahim, K. 2000The effect of reduced phosphorus concentration on mycorrhizal development and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings inoculated with 10 different fungiFor. Ecol. Man.128249258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Molina, R., Palmer, J.G. 1982Isolation, maintenance and pure culture manipulation of ectomycorrhizal fungiSchenck, N.C. eds. Methods and Principles of Mycorrhizal ResearchAm. Phytopath. SocSt. Paul, MN115129Google Scholar
  36. Munyanziza, E., Kuyper, T.W. 1995Ectomycorrhizal synthesis on seedlings of Afzelia quanzensis Welw. using various types of inoculumMycorrhiza5283287Google Scholar
  37. Ortega, U., Duñabeitia, M., Menendez, S., González-Murua, C., Majada, J. 2004Effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation in the nursery on growth and water relations of Pinus radiata in different water regimesTree Physiol.246573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Parladé, J., Pera, J, Alvarez, I.F. 1996Inoculation of containerized Pseudotsuga menziesii Pinus pinaster seedlings with spores of five species of ectomycorrhzal fungiMycorrhiza6237245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parladé J., Pera J. and Alvarez I.F. 1997. La mycorhization contrôlée du douglas dans le nord de l'espagne: premiers rèsultats en plantation. In: Le Tacon F.Champignons et Mycorhizes en Foret. Revue Forestière FrançaiseNuméro spécial 1997 pp. 163–173.Google Scholar
  40. Qi, S.X. 2002Brief introduction of eucalypt cultivation and utilization in ChinaWei, R.P.Xu, D. eds. Eucalyptus Plantations, Research Management and Development Proceedings of the International Symposium of Euclaypts, Guangzhou ChinaWorld ScientificSingapore3741Google Scholar
  41. Richter, D.L., Bruhn, J.N. 1989 Pinus resinosa ectomycorrhizae: seven host–fungus combinations synthesized in pure cultureSymbiosis7211228Google Scholar
  42. Rincón, A., Alvarez, I.F., Pera, J. 2001Inoculation of containerized Pinus pinea L. seedlings with seven ectomycorrhizal fungiMycorrhiza11265271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Supriyanto 1999. The effectiveness of some ectomycorrhizal fungi in alginate beads in promoting the growth of several dipterocarp seedlings. Biotropia 12: 59–77.Google Scholar
  44. Thomson, B.D., Malajczuk, N., Grove, T.S., Hardy, G.E.J. 1993Improving the colonization capacity and effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal fungal cultures by association with a host plant and re-isolationMycol. Res.7839844Google Scholar
  45. Torres, P., Honrubia, M. 1994Basidiospore viability in stored slurriesMycol. Res.98527530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trappe, J.M. 1962Fungus associates of ectotrophic mycorrhizaeBot. Rev.28538606Google Scholar
  47. Trappe, J.M. 1967Pure culture synthesis of Douglas-fir mycorrhizae with species of Hebeloma Suillus Astraeus For. Sci.13121130Google Scholar
  48. Xu D.P., Bai J.Y. and Dell B. 2000. Overcoming the constraints to productivity of plantation eucalypts in Southern China. In: Gong M.Q., Xu D.P., Zhong C.L., Chen Y.L., Dell B. and Brundrett M.Proceedings of Guangzhou ACIAR International Workshop on Mycorrhiza Guangzhou China.Google Scholar
  49. Xu, D.P., Dell, B., Malajczuk, N., Gong, M.Q. 2001Effects of P fertilisation and ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculation on early growth of eucalypt plantations in southern ChinaPlant Soil2334757CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Long Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bernard Dell
    • 1
  • Nicholas Malajczuk
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological Sciences and BiotechnologyMurdoch UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Research Institute of Tropical ForestryChinese Academy of ForestryGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations