Growth, nutrient, water relations, and gas exchange in a holm oak plantation in response to irrigation and fertilization

Abstract.

Eighty 6-years-old Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota seedlings planted on a former agricultural land were subjected during two growing seasons to one of four treatments: fertilization and irrigation, irrigation, fertilization, and control. Seasonal and between-treatment variations on water relations, gas exchange parameters, growth and nutrient status were analyzed. Water potential (Ψ) was related to climatic conditions. Thus, the frequent rain storms during the summer allow seedlings to maintain relatively high Ψ values, joined to moderate photosynthetic activity. Differences on Ψ, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance due to irrigation were shown at the onset and end of growth, related with lower water availability. Fertilization had a greater effect on growth than irrigation. Both fertilization and irrigation positively affected the relative increment on leaf nutrient concentration at the end of the second year. The results indicate that water availability was not a limited factor, thus irrigation is not justified; while fertilization improve growth.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. M.D. Abrams (1988) ArticleTitleComparative water relations of three successional hardwood species in central Wisconsin Tree Physiol. 4 263–273 Occurrence Handle14972816

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. M.D. Abrams (1994) ArticleTitleGenotypic and phenotypic variation as stress adaptations in temperate tree species: a review of several case studies Tree Physiol. 14 833–842 Occurrence Handle14967652

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. M. Abril R. Hanano (1998) ArticleTitleEcophysiological responses of three evergreen woody Mediterranean species to water stress Acta Oecologica 19 IssueID4 377–387 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S1146-609X(98)80042-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. M. Acherar S. Rambal J. Lepart (1991) ArticleTitleÉvolution du potential hydrique foliaire et de la conductance stomatique de quatre chênes méditerranéens lors d’une période de desséchement Ann. Sci. For. 48 561–573

    Google Scholar 

  5. M. Acherar S. Rambal (1992) ArticleTitleComparative water relations of four Mediterranean oak species Vegetatio 99–100 177–184 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00118224

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. T.J. Albaugh H.L. Allen P.M. Dougherty L.W. Kress J.S. King (1998) ArticleTitleLeaf area and above- and belowground growth responses of loblolly pine to nutrient and additions For. Sci. 44 IssueID2 317–328

    Google Scholar 

  7. C. Castell J. Terradas J.D. Tenhunen (1994) ArticleTitleWater relations, gas exchangeand growth of resprouts and mature plant shoots of Arbutus unedo L. and Quercus ilex L. Oecologia 98 201–211 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00341473

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. J. Cavender-Bares F.A. Bazzaz (2000) ArticleTitleChanges in drought response strategies with ontogeny in Quercus rubra: implications for scaling from seedlings to mature trees Oecologia 124 8–18

    Google Scholar 

  9. H. Cochard N. Bréda A. Granier (1996) ArticleTitleWhole tree hydraulic conductance and water loss regulation in Quercus during drought: evidence for stomatal control of embolism? Ann. Sci. For. 53 197–206

    Google Scholar 

  10. R.E. Dickson P.T. Tomlinson (1996) ArticleTitleOak growthdevelopment and carbon metabolism in response to water stress Ann. Sci. For. 53 181–196

    Google Scholar 

  11. F. Duhme T.M. Hinckley (1992) ArticleTitleDaily and seasonal variation in water relations of macchia shrubs and trees in France (Montpellier) and Turkey Vegetatio 99–100 185–198 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00118225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. S.C. Grossnickle (1993) ArticleTitleShoot water relations and gas exchange of western hemlock and western red cedar seedlings during establishment on a reforestation site Trees 7 148–155 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00199615

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. D. Haase R. Rose (1995) ArticleTitleVector analysis and its use for interpreting plant nutrient shifts in response to silvicultural treatments For. Sci. 41 54–66

    Google Scholar 

  14. Hechler W.D., Jeffrey O.D. and DeLucia E.H. 1991. Stomatal conductance of seedlings of three oak species subjected to nitrogen fertilization and drought treatments. In: McCormick L.H. and Gottschalk K.W. (eds.), Proc. 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-148.188–193

  15. T.M. Hinckley F. Duhme A.R. Hinckley H. Richter (1983) ArticleTitleDrought relations of shrub species: assessment of the mechanism of drought resistance Oecologia 59 344–350 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00378860

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. K.W. Kleiner M.D. Abrams J.C. Schultz (1992) ArticleTitleThe impact of water and nutrient deficiencies on the growthgas exchange and water relations of red oak and chestnut oak Tree Physiol. 11 271–278 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXlvVyisg%3D%3D Occurrence Handle14969951

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Kozlowski T.T. and Pallardy S.G. 1997. Physiology of woody plants, 2nd edn. Academis Press, 441 pp.

  18. F. Lebourgeois G. Lévy G. Aussenac B. Clerc F. Willm (1998) ArticleTitleInfluence of soil drying on leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth in two black pine varieties Ann. Sci. For. 55 287–299

    Google Scholar 

  19. M.S. Mielke M.A. Oliva N.F. de Barros R.M. Penchel C.A. Martinez S. da Fonseca A.C. de Almeida (2000) ArticleTitleLeaf gas exchange in a clonal eucalypt plantation as related to soil moistureleaf water potential and microclimate variables Trees 14 263–270 Occurrence Handle10.1007/s004680050012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. A. Nardini S. Salleo M.A. LoGullo F. Pit (2000) ArticleTitleDifferent responses to drought and freeze stress of Quercus ilex L. growing along a latitudinal gradient Plant Ecol. 148 139–147 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1009840203569

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. G. Oliveira J. Peñuelas (2000) ArticleTitleComparative photochemical and photomorphological responses to winter stress of an evergreen (Quercus ilex L.) and a semi-deciduous (Cistus albidus L.) mediterranean woody species Acta Oecologica 21 IssueID2 97–107 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S1146-609X(00)00121-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. M. Pardos G. Montero J.A. Pardos (2001) ArticleTitleGrowth dynamics of cork oak under different water regimes Silva Lusitana 9 IssueID1 1–12

    Google Scholar 

  23. C.D. Pigott S. Pigott (1993) ArticleTitleWater as a determinant of the distribution of trees at the boundary of the Mediterranean zone J. Ecol. 81 557–566

    Google Scholar 

  24. P.B. Reich T.M. Hinckley (1989) ArticleTitleInfluence of predawn water potential and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance on maximum daily leaf diffusive conductance in two oak species Funct. Ecol. 3 719–726

    Google Scholar 

  25. Report to Parliament and the Council on the application of Regulation (EEC) No. 2080/92 instituting a Community aid scheme for forestry measures in agriculture. 1997.

  26. D.E. Robinson R.G. Wagner C.J. Swanton (2002) ArticleTitleEffects of nitrogen on the growth of jack pine competing with Canada blue-joint grass and large-leaved aster Forest Ecol. Manage. 160 233–242 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00448-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. F. Romane J. Terradas (1992) Quercus ilex L. ecosystems: function, dynamics and managementAdvances in vegetation science 13 Kluwer Acad Publ. DordrechtBoston, London

    Google Scholar 

  28. A. Sala J.D. Tenhunen (1994) ArticleTitleSite-specific water relations and stomatal response of Quercus ilex in a Mediterranean watershed Tree Physiol. 14 601–617 Occurrence Handle14967677

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. J. Terradas R. Savé (1992) ArticleTitleThe influence of summer and winter stress and water relationships on the distribution of Quercus ilex L Vegetatio 99–100 137–145 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00118219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. H. Walter E. Harnickell D. Mueller-Dombois (1975) Climate-diagrams maps of the individual continents and the ecological climatic regions of the earth Springer-Verlag Berlin 36

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marta Pardos.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pardos, M., Royo, A. & Pardos, J. Growth, nutrient, water relations, and gas exchange in a holm oak plantation in response to irrigation and fertilization. New Forest 30, 75–94 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-004-2553-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Climatic conditions
  • Nutrient status
  • Quercus ilex L.
  • Seedling growth
  • Seedling physiology
  • Water supply