The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: Age and Major Noncommunicable Diseases (malignant neoplasms of hormonedependent tissues, cardiovascular, and type 2 diabetes mellitus)

This review presents basic data on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system (HHS) and its main components; the role of age (with the focus on aging) is discussed as a factor linked with changes in the state of the HHS and mediating its involvement in “preparative” predisposition to various major chronic noncommunicable diseases in humans (in particular, such neoplasms as cancer of the breast, endometrium, and prostate; ischemic heart disease as the leading cardiovascular pathology; type 2 diabetes mellitus) with the involvement of this major hormonal-metabolic system via obesity, insulin resistance, and decreased glucose tolerance, as well as the interaction of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and their receptors and effects on the reproductive and hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system. Data are presented on links between HHS subsystems in stress conditions, impairments to physiological rhythms, and in response to the gender factor. This review presents information on possible measures to prevent the main noncommunicable diseases based on consideration of the role of the HHS and the outcomes of impairments to its functioning. The review also addresses the fact that along with the widely accepted similarity in the hormonal-metabolic factors creating a platform for the development of the main noncommunicable diseases, there are examples of nonsimilarity, a point which requires further research.

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Correspondence to L. M. Berstein.

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Translated from Rossiiskii Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal imeni I. M. Sechenova, Vol. 106, No. 6, pp. 667–682, Yune, 2020.

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Berstein, L.M., Tsyrlina, E.V. The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: Age and Major Noncommunicable Diseases (malignant neoplasms of hormonedependent tissues, cardiovascular, and type 2 diabetes mellitus). Neurosci Behav Physi 51, 270–278 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11055-021-01066-6

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Keywords

  • hypothalamo-hypophyseal system
  • age
  • main noncommunicable diseases of humans
  • predisposition
  • approaches to disease prevention