Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 175–182 | Cite as

Effects of Blockade of D1/D2 Dopamine Receptors on the Behavior of Rats with Different Levels of Impulsivity and Self-Control

  • M. I. Zaichenko
  • G. Kh. Merzhanova

Rats classified on the basis of preliminary experiments into “self-controlled” and “impulsive” groups were given selective D1/D2 dopamine receptor blockers (SCH 23390 and raclopride respectively). The concepts of impulsivity and self-control relate to preferences in the choice between a more valuable but timedelayed reinforcement and a less valuable but immediate reinforcement. The effects of administration of these agents on the selection of reinforcements of different value were studied: the greater time-delayed reinforcement or the smaller immediate reinforcement. The numbers of refusals to make a choice and the latent periods of responses were also measured. D1/D2 receptor blockers had different actions in the different groups of animals. In rats of the self-controlled group, both blockers produced statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases in the number presses on the pedal delivering the less valuable but immediate reinforcement, providing evidence of an increase in impulsivity. In impulsive animals, the behavioral strategy underwent virtually no change. Administration of SCH 23390 increased the number of missed presses in both groups, this being particularly marked in self-controlled animals. Raclopride also increased the number of missed reactions in self-controlled rats, though this action was seen only one day after administration. Administration of the dopamine blockers used here led to increases in the latent periods of responses, but only in impulsive animals.


impulsivity self-control reinforcement selection dopamine receptors 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. A. Grigor’yan and G. Kh. Merzhanova, “Reflection of individual-typological differences in different phases of the learning process and accompanying changes in dopamine transmission in the mesolimbic system of the brain,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 56, No. 1, 22–37 (2006).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. I. Zaichenko and G. Kh. Merzhanova, “Studies of impulsivity in rats in the situation of selecting food reinforcements of different values,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 60, No. 1, 56–64 (2010).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Yu. Ivlieva, “Involvement of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system in adaptive behavior,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 60, No. 2, 489–494 (2010).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. P. Kuznetsova, G. Kh. Merzhanova, and G. A. Grigor’yan, “Effects of blockade of D1/D2 dopaminergic receptors on the behavioral strategy of cats in conditions of selecting reinforcements of different value,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 56, No. 5, 641–652 (2006).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. I. Maiorov and A. G. Frolov, “Effects of systemic administration of selective antagonists of dopamine D1 and D2/3 receptors on feeding and defensive (avoidance reactions) conditioned paw-placing reflexes in cats,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 54, No. 4, 489–494 (2004).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Yu. Sarkisova, M. A. Kulikov, I. S. Midzyanovskaya, and A. A. Folomkina, “The dopamine-dependent nature of depression-like behavior in Wag/Rij rats with genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 57, No. 1, 91–102 (2007).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. B. Shapovalova and Yu. V. Kamkina, “Comparison of the effects of systemic (intramuscular) and intrastriate administration of a selective blocker of dopamine D1 receptors on motor behavior and postural rearrangements in dogs,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 58, No. 5, 584–595 (2008).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. W. Ainslie, “Impulse control in pigeons,” J. Exp. Anal. Behav., 21, No. 3, 485–489 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. D. Alex and E. A. Pehek, “Pharmacologic mechanisms of serotonergic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission,” Pharmacol. Therap., 113, 296–320 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. J. Beninger and R. Miller, “Dopamine D1-like receptors and reward-related incentive learning,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 22, No. 2, 335–345 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. N. Cardinal, N. Daw, T. W. Robbins, and B. J. Everitt, “Local analysis of behaviour in the adjusting-delay task for assessing choice of delayed reinforcement,” Neural Netw., 15, No. 4–6, 617–634 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Denk, M. E. Walton, K. A. Jennings, et al., “Differential involvement of serotonin and dopamine systems in cost-benefit decisions about delay or effort,” Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 179, No. 3, 587–596 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. W. Kalivas and M. Nakamura, “Neural systems for behavioral activation and reward,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, No. 2, 223–227 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. W. Logue and G. R. King, “Self-control and impulsiveness in adult humans when food is the reinforcer,” Appetite, 17, 105–120 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Missale, R. Nash, S. W. Robinson, et al., “Dopamine receptors: from structure to function,” Physiol. Rev., 78, No. 1, 189–225 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Monterosso and G. Ainslie, “Beyond discounting: possible experimental model of impulse control,” Psychopharmacology, 46, No. 4, 339–347 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. L. Perry, D. J. Stairs, and M. T. Bardo, “Impulsive choice and environmental enrichment: effects of d-amphetamine and methylphenidate,” Behav. Brain Res., 193, No. 1, 48–54 (2008).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. G. Phillips, S. Ahn, and S. B. Floresco, “Magnitude of dopamine release in medial prefrontal cortex predicts accuracy of memory on a delayed response task,” J. Neurosci., 24, No. 2, 547–553 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. E. Pratt and S. J. Mizumori, “Neurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex show anticipatory rate changes to predictable differential rewards in a spatial memory task,” Behav. Brain Res., 123, No. 2, 165–183 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Rachlin and L. Green, “Commitment, choice, and self-control,” J. Exp. Anal. Behav., 17, No. 1, 17–22 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. W. Robbins and B. Everitt, “Neurobehavioral mechanisms of reward and motivation,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 6, No. 2, 228–236 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. Sawaguchi and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, “The role of D1-dopamine receptor in working memory: local injections of dopamine antagonists into the prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys performing an oculomotor delayed-response task,” J. Neurophysiol., 71, No. 2, 515–528 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Schimo and O. Hikosaka, “Role of tonically active neurons in primate caudate on reward-oriented saccadic eye movement,” J. Neurosci., 21, No. 19, 7804–7814 (2001).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. M. Van Gaalen, R. Van Koten, A. N. Schoffelmeer, and L. J. Vanderschuren, “Critical involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in impulsive decision making,” Biol. Psychiatry, 60, No. 1, 66–73 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. M. Van Gaalen, L. Unger, A. L. Jongen-Rêlo, et al., “Amphetamine decreases behavioral inhibition by stimulation of dopamine D2, but not D3, receptors,” Behav. Pharmacol., 20, No. 5–6, 484–491 (2009).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. R. Wade, H. de Wit, and J. B. Richards, “Effects of dopaminergic drugs on delayed reward as a measure of impulsive behavior in rats,” Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 150, No. 1, 90–101 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Williams and P. Dayan, “Dopamine, learning, and impulsivity: a biological account of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 15, No. 2, 160–179 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. V. Williams and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, “Modulation of memory fields by dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex,” Nature, 376, No. 6541, 572–575 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. A. Winstanley, D. E. Theobald, J. W. Dalley, and T. W. Robbins, “Interactions between serotonin and dopamine in the control of impulsive choice in rats: therapeutic implications for impulse control disorders,” Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, No. 4, 669–682 (2005).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. A. Wise, “Neuroleptics and operant behavior: the anhedonia hypothesis,” Behav. Brain Sci., 5, No. 1, 39–87 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and NeurophysiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations