Comparison of the Behavior of Rats after Prolonged Immobilization with Structural Changes in the Motor Cortex and Hippocampus

  • I. P. Levshina
  • V. N. Mats
  • N. V. Pasikova
  • N. N. Shuikin

Behavioral and neuron-glial ratios in the motor neocortex and hippocampus after stress induced by discontinuous (7–8 h/day for three weeks) immobilization were compared in Wistar rats (n = 23). Immobilization led to suppression of motor and orientational activity in the open field test and increases in the numbers and durations of episodes of freezing. Morphometric measurements demonstrated significant increases in the density of neurons with hypoxic changes in hippocampal field CA3 and a three-fold increase in this value in the motor zone of the cortex in both hemispheres of experimental animals as compared with controls. No clear glial cell reaction was seen in the motor cortex. Increases in the density of glial elements and the number of multinucleolar neurons in field CA3 provide evidence of compensatory processes occurring in the brain. Hypoxic changes to neurons were functional in nature.


open field test behavior rats immobilization motor cortex hippocampus neurons glia 


  1. 1.
    M. G. Airapetyants, “Mechanisms of the pathogenesis of neuroses,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 55, No. 5, 734–746 (2005).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. G. Airapetyants, V. V. Aleksandrin, E. V. Kurochkina, I. P. Levshina, and P. N. Aleksandrov, “Microcirculatory lesions in the rat brain in neurosis,” Byull. Eksperim. Biol. Med., 118, No. 11, 521–522 (1994).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. M. Aleksandrovskaya and A. V. Koltsova, “Structural and functional rearrangements of neurons and glial cells in the sensorimotor cortex in experimental neurosis,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 30, No. 9, 529–532 (1980).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. A. Gilinskii, S. V. Goryakin, T. V. Latysheva, G. M. Petrakova, and N. V. Prokopieva, “Mechanisms of formation of adaptive traces in graded stressing,” Byul. Sib. Otdel Ros. Akad. Med. Nauk., 112, 141–147 (2004).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. A. Dushkov, Motor Activity in Humans in a Hermetic Chamber and Space Flight [in Russian], Meditsina, Moscow (1969).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. V. Gulyaeva and I. P. Levshina, “Relationship between individual-typological behavioral characteristics and the state of the lipid components of cerebral membranes in stress,” in: The Individual Brain: Structural Bases of Individual Behavioral Characteristics [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1993), pp. 82–91.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. G. Zhvaniya, “Ultrastructural rearrangements in a number of endbrain formations in the rat in conditions of decreased motor activity not inducing stress. Morphology,” Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol., 109, No. 3, 10–13 (1996).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. G. Zhvaniya and M. G. Bliadze, “Effects of hypokinesia on the ultrastructure of the emotiogenic formations of the cerebrum,” Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol., 98, No. 1, 27–34 (1990).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Krants, M. Poppai, A. Vollenberger, and K. Gekht, “Metabolic processes in the heart and blood vessel walls in stress,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 27, No. 2, 355–356 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    V. N. Larina and I. P. Levshina, “Structural-functional changes in the central nervous system in white rats on exposure to asthenia-inducing white noise,” in: The Systems Properties of Tissue Organizations [in Russian], Meditsina, Moscow (1977), pp. 145–147.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    I. P. Levshina and N. V. Gulyaeva, “Changes in energy metabolism in a number of brain areas and autonomic reactions in white rats during neuroticization,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 34, No. 3, 554–559 (1984).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    I. P. Levshina and N. V. Gulyaeva “Changes in local blood flow rate and cytochrome contents in various areas of the brain in white rats during neuroticization,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 34, No. 5, 967–971 (1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    I. P. Levshina, V. N. Mats, N. V. Pasikova, and N. N. Shuikin, “Comparison of the behavior of rats after immobilization with structural changes in the motor cortex,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 58, No. 4, 498–505 (2008).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. N. Mats, Neuron-Glial Interactions in the Rat Neocortex during Learning [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1994).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. N. Mats, O. L. Segal, and R. I. Kruglikov, “Changes in the dry weight of the nuclei of pyramidal nuclei in the motor cortex during acquisition of a local motor-feeding conditioned reflex,” Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Biol., No. 2, 282–289 (1979).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Z. Meerson, “The stress-limiting systems of the body and their role in preventing ischemic cardiac lesions,” Byul. Vses. Kardiol. Nauch. Tsentra Akad. Med. Nauk. SSSR, 1, 34–43 (1985).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Poppai, K. Gekht, and L. Morits, “Integrative activity of the brain and blood pressure in rats during hypokinetic stress,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 27, No. 2, 348–349 (1977).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. V. Portugalov, E. I. Ilyina-Kakueva, and V. I. Starostin, “Structural and cytochemical changes in skeletal muscle during restriction of mobility,” Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol., 11, No. 61, 82–90 (1971).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. G. Prives, “Some achievements and outlook for cosmic anatomy of the vascular system,” Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol., 11, No. 61, 5–16 (1971).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. G. Pshennikova, “The role of opioid peptides in the reactions of the body to stress,” Patol. Fiziol. Eksperim. Terap., 2, 85–90 (1987).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. L. Segal and V. N. Mats, “Studies of protein content in hippocampal neurons during acquisition of local motor-feeding conditioned reflexes,” Biol. Nauki, No. 7, 82–87 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. V. Simonov, The Emotional Brain. Physiology. Anatomy. The Psychology of Emotions. Brain. Emotions. Needs. Behavior. Selected Works [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (2004), Vol. 1.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. E. Snesarev, Theoretical Grounds for the Pathological Anatomy of Mental Diseases [in Russian], Medgiz, Moscow (1950).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Khettei, M. Poppai, and K. Gekht, “Actions of chronic stress on energy metabolism in cortical synaptosomes in rats,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 27, No. 2, 352–354 (1977).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. N. Chuyan and T. V. Zayachnikova, “Modification of pain sensitivity in rats in hypokinetic stress,” Neirofiziologiya, 39, 174–183 (2007).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. A. P. Femke, G. Wolterink, and J. M. van Ree, “Physical and emotional stress have differential effects on preference for saccharine and open field behaviour in rats,” Behav. Brain Res., 139, No. 1–2, 131–138 (2002).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. B. Graever, W. F. Blakemore, and G. W. Kreutzberg, “Cellar pathology of the central nervous system,” in: Greenfield’s Neuropathology, D. I. Graham and P. L. Lantos (eds.), Edward Arnold, London (2002), Chapter 3, 7th Edition, pp. 123–191.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. Y. Paxinos and C. Watson, The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, Academic Press, San Diego (1997).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Polak, “Morphological and functional characteristics of the central and peripheral neuroglia (light microscopic observations),” Progr. Brain Res., 15, No. 1, 12–33 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E. Sahin and S. Gümülü, “Alterations in brain antioxidant status, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in response to different stress models,” Behav. Brain Res., 155, No. 2, 241–248 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. P. Levshina
    • 1
  • V. N. Mats
    • 1
  • N. V. Pasikova
    • 1
  • N. N. Shuikin
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and NeurophysiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations