Groundwater Assessment at Manukan Island, Sabah: Multidisplinary Approaches
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A rapid increase in the number of tourists has placed a heavy demand for freshwater on Manukan Island, a small island located offcoast of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Hydrochemical and numerical approaches have been applied in this study to evaluate the groundwater quality of unconfined aquifer lying in Manukan Island, Sabah, East Malaysia. This is vital to enhance better understanding about groundwater management. Hydrochemical analysis output indicated NaCl water type in sampling locations. Seawater intrusion is marked by its relatively high Na+, Mg2+, Cl− and SO4 2− concentrations. Hydrochemical analysis output clearly showed the influence of seawater in groundwater of Manukan Island. The numerical model output proved the influence of seawater in groundwater of Manukan Island by indicating the upconing process at the beneath of the pumping well. Current status of seawater intrusion in Manukan Island is about 14.6% of freshwater and seawater mixing ratio in low lying area of Manukan Island as simulated by SEAWAT-2000 model output. Numerical model SEAWAT-2000 output showed clearly that the upconing process is the possible route of seawater to influence the fresh groundwater aquifer chemistry in Manukan Island. The results have enhanced the current understanding of seawater intrusion in the study area. Future studies will focus on using numerical models to simulate and suggest suitable groundwater management plans in Manukan Island.
KeywordsShallow groundwater hydrochemical numerical model seawater intrusion small island
This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation, Malaysia (under Science Fund Grant No. 04-01-10-SF0065). The primary author would like to acknowledge National Science Fellowship (NSF) Scholarship, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Malaysia. The author (Lin Chin Yik) also would like to highly acknowledge WFS (World Federation of Scientists) for his scholarship providing. Permission from the Sabah Park Trustees for the study site is highly acknowledged. Lastly, the authors would like to thank Ms. Soon Wai Ping, Ms. Bibi Noorarlijannah Bt. Mohammad Ali, Ms. Chua Li Ying, Mr. Ng Lim Kuan Leang, Mr. Ong Jay Jim and Mr. Neldin Jeoffrey upon their field assistance.
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