A universal route for the simultaneous extraction and functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial and agricultural celluloses
A simple route was designed to extract the cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with formate groups from industrial and agricultural celluloses like microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), viscose fiber, ginger fiber, and bamboo fiber. The effect of reaction time on the microstructure and properties of the CNCs was investigated in detail, while microstructure and properties of different CNCs were compared. The rod-like CNCs (MCC) with hundreds of nanometers in length and about 10 nm in width, nanofibrillated CNCs (ginger fiber bamboo fiber) with average width of 30 nm and the length of 1 μm, and spherical CNCs (viscose fiber) with the width of 56 nm were obtained by one-step HCOOH/HCl hydrolysis. The CNCs with improved thermal stability showed the maximum degradation temperature (T max) of 368.9–388.2 °C due to the introduction of formate groups (reducibility) and the increased crystallinity. Such CNCs may be used as an effective template for the synthesis of nanohybrids or reinforcing material for high-performance nanocomposites.
KeywordsCellulose nanocrystal Simple route Formate groups Thermal stability Nanocomposites Reinforced materials
This work was funded by State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University (LK1428), The National Natural Science Foundation of China (51403187), The Public Technology Research Plan of Zhejiang Province, China, under Grant No. 2015C33111, Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. LQ14E030007, “521” Talent Project of Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, and Open Fund in Top Priority Discipline of Zhejiang Province in Zhejiang Sci-Tech University (2015YXQN04, 2015YXQN11).
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