Modulation of mesenchymal stem cell behavior by nano- and micro-sized β-tricalcium phosphate particles in suspension and composite structures
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Interest has grown in the use of microparticles and nanoparticles for modifying the mechanical and biological properties of synthetic bone composite structures. Micro- and nano-sized calcium phosphates are of interest for their osteoinductive behavior. Engineered composites incorporating polymers and ceramics, such as poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), for bone tissue regeneration have been well investigated for their proliferative and osteoinductive abilities. Only limited research has been done to investigate the effects of different sizes of β-TCP particles on human mesenchymal stromal cell behavior. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate the modulations of human adipose-derived stem cell (hASCs) behavior within cell/particle and cell/composite systems as functions of particle size, concentration, and exposure time. The incorporation of nanoscale calcium phosphate resulted in improved mechanical properties and osteogenic behavior within the scaffold compared to the microscale calcium phosphate additives. Particle exposure results indicate that cytotoxicity on hASCs correlates inversely with particle size and increases with the increasing exposure time and particle concentration. Composites with increasing β-TCP content, whether microparticles or nanoparticles, were less toxic than colloidal micro- and nano-sized β-TCP particles directly supplied to hASCs. The difference in viability observed as a result of varying exposure route is likely related to the increased cell–particle interactions in the direct exposure compared to the particles becoming trapped within the scaffold/polymer matrix.
KeywordsMesenchymal stem cells Cytotoxicity Inflammation Beta-tricalcium phosphate Nano/microparticle Health effects
The authors would like to thank Dr. Amar Karki and Dr. Dongmei Cao for their assistance in XRD and FIB-SEM characterizations.
Conflict of interests
All authors declare that they have no competing interests with the exception of J.M.G. who is a co-founder and co-owner of LaCell LLC, a biotechnology company focused on the use of hASCs for regenerative medical applications.
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