Pristine nanoparticles (NPs) may present a hazard to humans and the environment, and hence it is important to know to what extent NPs can be freely released from commercialized products in which they are added. The purpose of this study was to identify the parameters of the paint formulation containing SiO2 NPs of 19-nm diameter that could have an impact on the release induced by aging and abrasion. In order to simulate outdoor aging during the life cycle of the product, painted panels were exposed to accelerated weathering experiments in accordance with the norm EN ISO 16474-3:2013. The surface modification of these paints was characterized by scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM–EDS). These analyses showed that the acrylic copolymer binder has undergone a more significant chemical degradation compared with the styrene-acrylic copolymer. To simulate a mechanical aging, abrasion tests were conducted using a Taber Abraser, simulating critical scenarios of the abrasion standard. The particle size distributions and particle concentrations of the abraded particles were measured using an electric low-pressure impactor. After accelerated aging and abrasion tests, we observed a link between the paint degradations occurring with the release of pristine NPs and the embedded pristine NPs. Surface degradation of acrylic copolymer paints was more significant than that of the styrene-acrylic copolymer paints, and this induced a release of NPs 2.7 times higher. Other parameters like TiO2 addition as pigments induced a strong stability of paint against light and water, decreasing the total number of NPs released from paints from 30,000 to 1200 particles/cm3. These results revealed that formulations can be tuned to decrease the number of free NPs released and get a “safe-by-design” product.
Nanoparticles Paint Abrasion Weathering UV exposure Release Environmental and health effects
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access
This work was funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Program (FP7; 282 NanoHouse project—Grant Agreement no 247810). The author acknowledges the valuable assistance from Dr. David Cooper from CEA.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interest.
Anjum N, Ajit Prasad SL, Suresha B (2013) Role of silicon dioxide filler on mechanical and dry sliding wear behaviour of glass-epoxy composites. Adv Tribol 2013:1–10. doi:10.1155/2013/324952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chiantore O, Trossarelli L, Lazzari M (2000) Photooxidative degradation of acrylic and methacrylic polymers. Polymer (Guildf) 41:1657–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen PA, Dilks A, Egerton TA (2000) Infrared spectroscopic evaluation of the photodegradation of paint Part II : the effect of UV intensity & wavelength on the degradation of acrylic films pigmented with titanium dioxide. J Mater Sci 35:5353–5358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
European Standard International Organization for Standardization (EN ISO) (2013) EN ISO 16474-3 paints and varnishes—methods of exposure to laboratory light sources—Part 3: fluorescent UV lamps. ISO, LondonGoogle Scholar
Feller RL (1994) Accelerating aging—photochemical and thermal aspects. The Getty Conservation Institute. Getty Publications, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
Göhler D, Stintz M, Hillemann L, Vorbau M (2010) Characterization of nanoparticle release from surface coatings by the simulation of a sanding process. Ann Occup Hyg 54:615–624. doi:10.1093/annhyg/meq053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2006) ISO 7784-2:2006 paint and varnish—determination of resistance to abrasion Part 2: rotating abrasive rubber wheel method. ISO, LondonGoogle Scholar
International Organization for Standardization Technical Specification (ISO/TS) (2008) Nanotechnologies—terminology and definitions for nano-objects—nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate. ISO, LondonGoogle Scholar
Long TC, Saleh N, Tilton RD, Gregory V (2006) Titanium dioxide (P25) produces reactive oxygen species in implications for nanoparticle. Environ Sci Technol 40:4346–4352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marzaioli V, Aguilar-Pimentel JA, Weichenmeier I et al (2014) Surface modifications of silica nanoparticles are crucial for their inert versus proinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Int J Nanomed 9:2815–2832. doi:10.2147/IJN.S57396Google Scholar
Mizutani T, Arai K, Miyamoto M, Kimura Y (2006) Application of silica-containing nano-composite emulsion to wall paint: a new environmentally safe paint of high performance. Prog Org Coatings 55:276–283. doi:10.1016/j.porgcoat.2005.12.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Papliaka ZE, Andrikopoulos KS, Varella EA (2010) Study of the stability of a series of synthetic colorants applied with styrene-acrylic copolymer, widely used in contemporary paintings, concerning the effects of accelerated ageing. J Cult Herit 11:381–391. doi:10.1016/j.culher.2010.02.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peebles BC, Dutta PK, Waldman WJ et al (2011) Physicochemical and toxicological properties of commercial carbon blacks modified by reaction with ozone. Environ Sci Technol 45:10668–10675. doi:10.1021/es202984tCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raju BR, Suresha RPSB, Bharath KN (2012) The effect of silicon dioxide filler on the wear resistance of glass fabric reinforced epoxy composites. Adv Polym Sci 2:51–57Google Scholar
Saber AT, Jensen KA, Raun JN et al (2012) Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of nanoparticles designed for inclusion in paints and lacquers. Nanotoxicology 6:453–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sambhy V, MacBride MM, Peterson BR, Sen A (2006) Silver bromide nanoparticle/polymer composites: dual action tunable antimicrobial materials. J Am Chem Soc 128:9798–9808. doi:10.1021/ja061442zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schlagenhauf L, Chu BTT, Buha J et al (2012) Release of carbon nanotubes from an epoxy-based nanocomposite during an abrasion process. Environ Sci Technol 46:7366–7372. doi:10.1021/es300320yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wohlleben W, Brill S, Meier MW et al (2011) On the Lifecycle of nanocomposites: comparing released fragments and their in-vivo hazards from three release mechanisms and four nanocomposites. Small 16:2384–2395. doi:10.1002/smll.201002054CrossRefGoogle Scholar