The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

  • Alireza Khataee
  • Ali Movafeghi
  • Fatemeh Nazari
  • Fatemeh Vafaei
  • Mohammad Reza Dadpour
  • Younes Hanifehpour
  • Sang Woo Joo
Research Paper


Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.

Graphical Abstract


l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles Phytotoxicity Indicator species Bioaccumulation Epifluorescence microscopy Antioxidant enzymes 



The authors thank the University of Tabriz, Iran, for all support provided.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza Khataee
    • 1
  • Ali Movafeghi
    • 2
  • Fatemeh Nazari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fatemeh Vafaei
    • 2
  • Mohammad Reza Dadpour
    • 3
  • Younes Hanifehpour
    • 4
  • Sang Woo Joo
    • 4
  1. 1.Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural SciencesUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  3. 3.Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  4. 4.School of Mechanical EngineeringYeungnam UniversityGyeongsanSouth Korea

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