White light-emitting nanocomposites based on an oxadiazole–carbazole copolymer (POC) and InP/ZnS quantum dots

  • Annalisa Bruno
  • Carmela Borriello
  • Tiziana Di Luccio
  • Giuseppe Nenna
  • Lucia Sessa
  • Simona Concilio
  • Saif A. Haque
  • Carla Minarini
Research Paper


In this work, we studied energetic and optical proprieties of a polyester-containing oxadiazole and carbazole units that we will indicate as POC. This polymer is characterized by high photoluminescence activity in the blue region of the visible spectrum, making it suitable for the development of efficient white-emitting organic light emission devices. Moreover, POC polymer has been combined with two red emitters InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to obtain nanocomposites with wide emission spectra. The two types of QDs have different absorption wavelengths: 570 nm [InP/ZnS(570)] and 627 nm [InP/ZnS(627)] and were inserted in the polymer at different concentrations. The optical properties of the nanocomposites have been investigated and compared to the ones of the pure polymer. Both spectral and time resolved fluorescence measurements show an efficient energy transfer from the polymer to QDs, resulting in white-emitting nanocomposites.


Nanocomposites Polymers Time resolved luminescence Quantum dots OLED Energy saving lighting 


  1. Acierno D, Concilio S, Diodati A, Iannelli P, Piotto SP, Scarfato P (2002) Synthesis and liquid crystalline properties of low molecular mass compounds containing the 1,4-bis (5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl) benzene unit. Liq Cryst 29:1383–1392. doi: 10.1155/2010/581056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acierno D, Amendola E, Bellone S, Concilio S, Iannelli P, Neitzert HC, Rubino A, Villani F (2003) Synthesis and characterization of a new class of nematic photoluminescent oxadiazole-containing polyethers. Macromolecules 36:6410–6415. doi: 10.1021/ma034382f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acierno D, Amendola E, Bellone S, Concilio S, Ferrara L, Iannelli P, Neitzert HC, Rubino A, Villani F (2004) Synthesis and luminescent properties of a new class of nematic oxadiazole containing poly-ethers for PLED. J Non-Cryst Solids 338:278–282. doi: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2004.02.088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adachi C, Tsutsui T, Saito S (1990) Blue light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices. Appl Phys Lett 56:799–801. doi: 10.1063/1.103177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrade WD, Datta S, Forrest S, Djurovich P, Polikarpov E, Thompson ME (2005) Relationship between the ionization and oxidation potentials of molecular organic semiconductors. Org Electron 6:11–20. doi: 10.1016/j.orgel.2005.01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borriello C, Concilio S, Minarini C, Piotto S, Di Luccio T (2013) Optical properties of ionic liquid passivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots dispersed in POC copolymer. Polym Compos. doi: 10.1002/pc.22467 Google Scholar
  7. Bruno A, De Girolamo Del Mauro A, Nenna G, Haque SA, Minarini C (2013a) Insights on photophysical proprieties of DCM dye in PVK host matrix. Polym Compos. doi: 10.1002/pc.22441 Google Scholar
  8. Bruno A, Reynolds LX, Nelson J, Haque SA (2013b) Determining the exciton diffusion length in a polyfluorene from ultrafast fluorescence measurements of polymer/fullerene blend films. J Phys Chem C 117:19832–19838. doi: 10.1021/jp404985q CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bugatti V, Concilio S, Iannelli P, Piotto SP, Bellone S, Ferrara M, Neitzert HC, Rubino A, Della Sala D, Vacca P (2006) Synthesis and characterization of new electroluminescent molecules containing carbazole and oxadiazole units. Synth Metals 156:13–20. doi: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2005.07.341 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burroughes JH, Bradley DDC, Brown AR, Marks RN, Mackay K, Friend RH, Burns PL, Holmes AB (1990) Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers. Nature 347:539–541. doi: 10.1038/347539a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coe-Sullivan S, Woo WK, Steckel JS, Bawendi M, Bulović V (2003) Tuning the performance of hybrid organic/inorganic quantum dot light-emitting devices. Org Electron 4:123–130. doi: org/10.1016/j.orgel.2003.08.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Concilio S, Bugatti V, Iannelli P, Piotto Piotto S (2010) Synthesis and characterization of new photoluminescent oxadiazole/carbazole-containing polymers. Int J Polym Sci 2010:581056–581062. doi: 10.1155/2010/581056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Di Luccio T, Borriello C, Bizzarro V, Nenna G, Grimaldi I A, Loffredo F, Villani F, Fasolino T, Rega R, Minarini C (2012) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference for the Organic and Printed Electronics Industry (Munich) 1: 44–47. ISBN:9783000381225Google Scholar
  14. Forrest SF (2004) The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic. Nature 428:911–918. doi: 10.1038/nature02498 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Friend RH, Gymer RW, Holmes AB, Burroughes JH, Marks RN, Taliani C, Bradley DDC, Dos Santos DA, Brea das JL, Loegdlund M, Salaneck WR (1999) Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers. Nature 397:121–128. doi: 10.1038/16393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grem G, Leditzky G, Ulrich B, Leising G (1992) Realization of a blue-light-emitting device using poly(p-phenylene). Adv Mater 4:36–37. doi: 10.1002/adma.19920040107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guilbert AY, Reynolds LX, Bruno A, MacLachlan A, King SP, Faist MA, Pires E, Macdonald JE, Stingelin N, Haque SA, Nelson J (2012) Effect of multiple adduct fullerenes on microstructure and phase behavior of P3HT:fullerene blend films for organic solar cells. ACS Nano 6:3868–3875. doi: 10.1021/nn204996w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee J, Klaerner G, Miller R (1999) Oxidative stability and its effect on the photoluminescence of poly(fluorene) derivatives: end group effects. Chem Mater 11:1083–1088. doi: 10.1021/cm981049v CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu ZY, Zhang Y, Hu G, Su Y, Ma D, Wang L, Jing X, Wang F (2002) Novel bipolar light-emitting copolymer containing triazole and triphenylamine moieties. J Polym Sci 40:1122–1128Google Scholar
  20. Mutlugün E, Hernandez-Martinez PL, Eroğlu C, Coşkun Y, Erdem T, Sharma VK, Ünal E, Panda SK, Hickey GS, Gaponik N, Eychmuller A, Demir HV (2012) Large-area (over 50 cm × 50 cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP/ZnS quantum dots. Nano Lett 12:3986–3993. doi: 10.1021/nl301198k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nomura K, Ohta H, Takagi A, Kamiya T, Hiran M, Hosono H (2004) Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors. Nature 432:488–492. doi: 10.1038/nature03090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nozik AJ (2002) Quantum dot solar cells. Physica E 14:115–120. doi: 10.1016/S1386-9477(02)00374-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peng Z, Zhang J (1999) New oxadiazole-containing conjugated polymers for single-layer. Light-emitting diodes. Chem Mater 11:1138–1143. doi: 10.1021/cm981087 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wu FI, Shih PI, Shu CF, Tung YL, Chi Y (2005) Highly efficient light-emitting diodes based on fluorene copolymer consisting of triarylamine units in the main chain and oxadiazole pendent groups. Macromolecules 38:9028–9036. doi: 10.1021/ma051842r CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Xu S, Ziegler J, Nann T (2008) Rapid synthesis of highly luminescent InP and InP/ZnS nanocrystals. J Mater Chem 18:2653–2656. doi: 10.1039/B803263G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang XY, Zhao DW, Leck KS, Tan ST, Tang YX, Zhao JL, Demir HV, Sun XW (2012) Full visible range covering InP/ZnS nanocrystals with high photometric performance and their application to white quantum dot light-emitting diodes. Adv Materials 24:4180–4185. doi: 10.1002/adma.201104990 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yeh KM, Lee CC, Chen Y (2008) Host copolymers containing pendant carbazole and oxadiazole groups: synthesis, characterization and optoelectronic applications for efficient green phosphorescent OLEDs. J Poly Sci 46:5180–5193. doi: 10.1002/pola.22846 Google Scholar
  28. Ziegler J, Xu S, Kucur E, Meister F, Batentschuk M, Gindele F, Nann T (2008) Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs. Adv Mater 20:4068–4073. doi: 10.1002/adma.200800724 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ENEA, UTTP NANOCentro Ricerche PorticiPorticiItaly
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentImperial College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of PharmacyUniversity of SalernoSalernoItaly
  4. 4.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of SalernoSalernoItaly

Personalised recommendations