The preparation, physicochemical properties, and the cohesive energy of liquid sodium containing titanium nanoparticles

Research Paper


Liquid sodium containing titanium nanoparticles (LSnanop) of 10-nm diameter was prepared by dispersing titanium nanoparticles (2 at.% Ti) into liquid sodium with the addition of stirring and ultrasonic sound wave. The titanium nanoparticles themselves were prepared by the vapor deposition method. This new liquid metal, LSnanop, shows a remarkable stability due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles in liquid sodium medium. In addition, the difference of measured heat of reaction to water between this LSnanop and liquid sodium indicates the existence of cohesive energy between the liquid sodium medium and dispersed titanium nanoparticles. The origin of the cohesive energy, which serves to stabilize this new liquid metal, was explained by the model of screened nanoparticles in liquid sodium. In this model, negatively charged nanoparticles with transferred electrons from liquid sodium are surrounded by the positively charged screening shell, which may inhibit the gathering of nanoparticles by the “Coulombic repulsion coating.” The atomic volume of LSnanop shows the shrinkage from the linear law, which also suggests the existence of cohesive energy. The viscosity of LSnanop is almost the same as that of liquid sodium. This behavior was explained by the Einstein equation. The surface tension of LSnanop is 17 % larger than that of liquid sodium. The cohesive energy and the negative adsorption may be responsible to this increase. Titanium nanoparticles in liquid sodium seem to be free from the Coulomb fission. This new liquid metal containing nanoparticles suggests the possibility to prepare various stable suspensions with new properties.


Nanofluid Liquid metals Sodium Nanoparticle Coulomb fission 



The present study is part of the program, “Development of Chemical Reaction Suppression Technology of Liquid Sodium Metal Based on Nanotechnology” entrusted to Japan Atomic Energy Agency by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Innovative Technology Research Group, FBR System Technology Development UnitAdvanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy AgencyIbarakiJapan

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