Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as versatile carrier for small and large molecules across cell membranes
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The successful transport of molecules across the cell membrane is a key point in biology and medicine. In most cases, molecules alone cannot penetrate the cell membrane, therefore an efficient carrier is needed. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (diameter: 100–250 nm, depending on the functionalization) were loaded with fluorescent oligonucleotides, peptide, proteins, antibodies, polymers or porphyrins and characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Any excess of molecules was removed by ultracentrifugation, and the dissolved molecules at the same concentration were used as control. The uptake of such fluorescence-labeled nanoparticles into HeLa cells was monitored by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles were able to transport all molecules across the cell membrane, whereas the dissolved molecules alone were taken up only to a very small extent or even not at all.
KeywordsCalcium phosphate Drug delivery Cells Nanomedicine
This study was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Transregio 60) to A. M. W., J. B. and M. E. We thank Prof. Dr. Eric Metzen and Frank Splettstoesser for help with confocal laser scanning microscopy.
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