Electrostatically mediated adsorption by nanodiamond and nanocarbon particles
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Nanodiamond (ND) and other nanocarbon particles are popular platforms for the immobilization of molecular species. In the present research, factors affecting adsorption and desorption of propidium iodide (PI) dye, chosen as a charged molecule model, on ND and sp 2 carbon nanoparticles were studied, with a size ranging from 75 to 4,305 nm. It was found that adsorption of PI molecules, as characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, on ND particles is strongly influenced by sorbent-sorbate electrostatic interactions. Different types of NDs with a negative zeta potential were found to adsorb positively charged PI molecules, while no PI adsorption was observed for NDs with a positive zeta potential. The type and density of surface groups of negatively charged NDs greatly influenced the degree and capacity of the PI adsorbed. Ozone-purified NDs had the highest capacity for PI adsorption, due to its greater density of oxygen containing groups, i.e., acid anhydrides and carboxyls, as assessed by TDMS and TOF–SIMS. Single wall nanohorns and carbon onion particles were found to adsorb PI regardless of their zeta potential; this is likely due to π bonding between the aromatic rings of PI and the graphitic surface of the materials and the internal cavity of the horns.
KeywordsAdsorption Diamonds Surface characterization Surface modification Nanoparticles Drug delivery Biomedical application
This research is supported by the Materials World Network program of the National Science Foundation under Grant No DMR-0602906. O.S. acknowledges the partial support through Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant N66001-04-1-8933. In addition, we thank V. Kuznetsov, of the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk for providing onion-like carbon samples, V. Vorobyev for providing NDW− samples, Yury Gogotsi, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Nanomaterials Group at Drexel University, for the BET analysis, Elaine Chuanzhen Zhou at the Analytical Instrumentation Facility for TOF–SIMS experiments and Zachary Fitzgerald, Department of Materials Science and Engineering at North Carolina State University for his modeling of the PI molecule. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
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