Entry of large nanoparticles into cells aided by nanoscale mechanical stimulation
- 159 Downloads
Nanoparticle entry into the cell depends on the surface charge and also on their size. Here, we report the entry of large magnetic nanoparticles (500 nm mean diameter) into the cell, being mediated by a mechanical stimulus supplied to the culture flasks. Investigations were carried out at 2–10 Hz frequency range with the vertical excursions ranging from 5 to 20 nm. Mechanical stimulation was found to aid the entry of both positive and negatively charged nanoparticles over a frequency range of 2–10 Hz. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that, the stimulated samples could possibly mediate particle uptake through membrane invaginations, while the control samples indicated particles at the cell periphery, just outside the cell membrane. Mechanical stimulation had no significant effect on the cell morphology. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation resulted in an increase in the proportion of S-phase in the stimulated samples compared with the controls, suggesting a reduction in the cell cycle duration. Mechanical stimulation could very well extend its effects to nanoscale cellular movements, and also facilitate the entry of large magnetic nanoparticle. This could be an interesting prospect for nanoparticle mediated drug delivery.
KeywordsNanoscale stimulation Magnetic nanoparticles Cell cycle Surface charge Particle uptake Nanomedicine
The authors wish to thank Carol-Anne Smith and Andrew Hart for their valuable technical assistance.
- Brown TD (1995) Techniques for cell and tissue culture mechanostimulation: historical and contemporary design considerations. Iowa Orthop J 15:112–117Google Scholar
- Hughes S, Dobson J, Haj AE (2003) Mechanical stimulation of calcium signaling pathways in human bone cells using ferromagnetic micro-particles: implications for tissue engineering. Eur Cells Mater 6(2):43Google Scholar
- Lange E, Koenig FO (1993) Handbuch der experimentalphysik. Leipzig, 263 ppGoogle Scholar
- Overbeek JTHD (1952) Electrochemistry of the double layer, Chap 6, vol 1. In: Kruyt HR (ed) Colloid science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 124–126Google Scholar