Mesoscopic phenomena in oxide nanoparticles systems: processes of growth
The process of nanoparticles growth has been investigated and discussed in terms of mesoscopic approach on example of ZrO2–3 mol%Y2O3 system. Growth process of nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation has three stages: cooperative-oriented crystallization of ordered areas in xerogel polymer matrix and disintegration of crystallized areas (350–400 °C); oriented attachment of particles into single crystal caused by electrostatic interaction (400–600 °C); attachment of particles to single and poly-crystals by oxygen diffusion through vacancies in surface layers of joining crystals (600–1,000 °C). Proposed conception on mesoscopic processes of nanoparticles formation make the understanding and theoretical description of significant amount of experimental data possible and open the way for purposeful governing by oxide powder system on the stages of obtaining, compaction, and sintering.
KeywordsZirconia nanopowders Nanoparticles growth mechanisms Oriented crystallization Oriented attachment Sewing of nanoparticles Oxygen-vacancy diffusion Synthesis
The authors thank Dr. J. Wang (PSU MCL), Dr. A.V. Ragulya (IMS NASU), and Dr. I. Popov (Hebrew University Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology) for carrying out HRTEM and STEM study of powders, prof. Tokyy V. (DonPhTI NASU) for discussion results of computer simulation. The work was granted by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine by Program “Fundamental problems of Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies”, project No 89/H11.
- Arharov VI (1980) Mesoscopic phenomena in solid state and their microstructure. Problems of modern physics. Moscow, Russia. Science 609–617Google Scholar
- Imry Y (2002) Introduction to mesoscopic physics, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Klug A, Alexander L (1974) X-ray diffraction procedures. Wiley Interscience, New-York, p 125Google Scholar
- Konstantinova T, Danilenko I, Dobrikov A, Volkova G, Tokyy V, Gorban S (2002) TEM, ESR and XRD studies of thermally induced formation nanocrystalline zirconia. CIMTECGoogle Scholar
- Konstantinova T, Danilenko I, Pilipenko N, Volkova G (2003) Nanomaterials for SOFC electrolytes and anodes on the base of zirconia. Electrochem Soc Proc 7:153–159Google Scholar
- Konstantinova T, Ragulya A, Doroshkevich A, Volkova G, Glazunova V (2006) The mechanisms of particle formation in Y doped ZrO2. Int J Nanotechnol 3(1)Google Scholar
- Oskam G, Hu Z, Penn R, Pesika N, Searson P (2002) Coarsening of metal oxide nanoparticles. Phys Rev 66(011403):1–4Google Scholar
- Savina DL, Tokiy VV, Konstantinova TE, Tokyy NV (2008) Transport phenomena in near-surface layers of zirconia. Rus Nanosyst Nanomater Nanotechnol 6(3):725–730Google Scholar
- Tokiy N, Konstantinova T, Tokiy V, Savina D (2003) Influence of oxygen vacancies and 26-d impurity on electronic and transport properties of zirconia. Electrochem Soc proc 7:181–186Google Scholar
- Tokiy N, Tokiy V, Savina D, Konstantinova T (2007) Transport phenomena in surficial layers of zirconia proceedings of X-international conference. Hydrogen Mater Sci Chem Carbon Nanomat 172:499–508Google Scholar
- Wagner C (1961) Theorie der alterung von niedel-schlägen durch umlösen (ostwald-reifung). Electrochem 65:581–591Google Scholar