Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 1183–1192 | Cite as

Photochemical synthesis of copper nanoparticles incorporated in poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)

  • Salvatore Giuffrida
  • Lucia L. Costanzo
  • Giorgio Ventimiglia
  • Corrado Bongiorno
Research Paper


The effect of the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) on the copper nanoparticle formation, obtained by UV irradiation of ethanol solution of Cu(acac)2 (acac = 2,4-pentanedionato), was investigated. At 254 nm, in conditions of light completely absorbed by complex, the PVP exhibited protective and stabilizing effects, as shown by the formation of a colloidal copper solution and by a block of the heterogeneous process, which leads to thin film formation on the quartz walls. The colloidal solution was tested for several months by plasmon position and it was found that it remained unaltered in inert atmosphere, but returned to the starting complex on contact with air. The PVP ability to control the particle size was investigated by carrying out photoreduction sensitized by Hacac at 254 and 300 nm, in the presence of PVP concentration varying from 0 to 0.2 M. In this range it was possible to obtain copper nanoparticles of dimensions decreasing from 30 to 4 nm. Besides this, the PVP (0.005–0.05 M) role as sensitizer was investigated by irradiating solutions of Cu(acac)2 at 300 nm which is an inactive wavelength for copper reduction by direct light absorption. It was found that the PVP was an efficient sensitizer of the copper photoreduction. The nanoparticles were characterized by plasmon band, Trasmission Electron Microscope (TEM) as well as Dynamic Light Scattering (DSL) analysis. The overall results evidence the advantages of the PVP use in the nanoparticle copper formation through the photochemical technique such as the exclusive formation of colloidal copper, their size control, stable colloidal solution and complete return to the starting complex.


Copper Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) Sensitizer Nanoparticles Size control Colloids 


  1. Calvert J, Pitts JN (1966) In: Experimental Methods in Photochemistry, John Wiley and Sons, New York, p 783Google Scholar
  2. Chatterjee K, Das D, Chakravorty D (2005) Optical absorption in composites containing copper core-copper-oxide shell nanostructure in a silica gel. J Phys D Appl Phys 38(3):451–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen S, Yang Y (2002) Magnetoelectrochemistry of Gold nanoparticle quantized capacitance charging. J Am Chem Soc 124(19):5280–5281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Condorelli GG, Costanzo LL, Fragalà IL, Giuffrida S, Ventimiglia G (2003) A single photochemical route for the formation of both copper nanoparticles and patterned nanostructured films. J Mater Chem 13:2409–2411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Creighton JA, Eadon DG (1991) Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of the colloidal metallic elements. J Chem Soc Farad Trans 87(24):3881–3891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Giuffrida S, Condorelli GG, Costanzo LL, Fragalà IL, Ventimiglia G, Vecchio G (2004) Photochemical Mechanism of the Formation of Nanometer-Sized Copper by UV Irradiation of Ethanol Bis(2,4-pentandionato)copper(II) Solutions. Chem Mater 16:1260–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Giuffrida S, Condorelli GG, Costanzo LL, Ventimiglia G, Lo Nigro R, Favazza M, Votrico E, Bongiorno C, Fragalà IL, (2007) Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition. J Nanopart Res 9:611–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haas I, Shanmugam S, Gedanken A (2006) Pulsed sonoelectrochemical synthesis of size-controlled copper nanoparticles stabilized by poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). J Phys Chem B 110(34):16947–16952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Henglein A (1989) Small-particle research: physicochemical properties of extremely small colloidal metal and semiconductor particles. Chem Rev 89(8):1861–1873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lin D, Wang GX, Srivatsan TS, Meslet Al-Hajri, Petraroli M (2002) The influence of copper nanopowders on microstructure and hardness of lead-tin solder. Mater Lett 53(4–5):333–338Google Scholar
  11. Loginov AV, Gorbunova VV, Boitsova TB (2002) Photochemical synthesis and properties of colloidal copper, silver and gold adsorbed on quartz. J Nanopart Res 4(3):193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Marciniak B, Hug GL (1997) Quenching of triplet states of organic compounds by 1,3-diketonate transition-metal chelates in solution. Energy and/or electron transfer. Coord Chem Rev 159:55–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mishina ED, Nagai K, Nakabayashi S (2001) Self-assembled Cu/Cu2O multilayers: deposition, structure and optical properties. Nano Lett 1(8):401–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mott D, Galkowski J, Wang L, Luo J, Zhong CJ (2007) Synthesis of size-controlled and shaped copper nanoparticles. Langmuir 23(10):5740–5745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nasibulin AG, Ahonen PP, Richard O, Kauppinen EI, Altman IS (2001) Copper and copper oxide nanoparticle formation by chemical vapor nucleation from copper(II) acetylacetonate. J Nanopart Res 3(5/6):385–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ng CHB, Fan WY (2006) Shape evolution of Cu2O nanostructures via kinetic and thermodynamic controlled growth. J Phys Chem B 110(42):20801–20807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Park BK, Jeong S, Kim D, Moon J, Lim S, Kim JS (2007) Synthesis and size control of monodisperse copper nanoparticles by polyol method. J Colloid Interface Sci 311(2):417–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peyser LA, Vinson AE, Bartko AP, Dickson RM (2001) Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters. Science 291:103–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Raveendran P, Fu J, Wallen SL (2003) Completely “Green” Synthesis and Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 125(46):13940–13941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Takeshi T, Iryo K, Nishimura Y, Tsuji M (2001) Preparation of metal colloids by a laser ablation technique in solution: influence of laser wavelength on the ablation efficiency (II). J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 145(3):201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Templeton AC, Wuelfing WP, Murray RW (2000) Monolayer-protected cluster molecules. Acc Chem Res 33(1):27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Teng X, Black D, Watkins NJ, Gao Y, Yang H (2003) Platinum-maghemite core-shell nanoparticles using a sequential synthesis. Nano Lett 3(2):261–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tessier PM, Velev OD, Kalambur AT, Rabolt JF, Lenhoff AM, Kaler EW (2000) Assembly of gold nanostructured films templated by colloidal crystals and use in surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc 122(39):9554–9555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xiong Y, Washio I, Chen J, Cai H, Li ZY, Xia Y (2006) Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone): a dual functional reductant and stabilizer for the facile synthesis of noble metal nanoplates in aqueous solutions. Langmuir 22(20):8563–8570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yeh MS, Yang YS, Lee YP, Lee HF, Yeh YH, Yeh CS (1999) Formation and characteristics of Cu colloids from CuO powder by laser irradiation in 2-propanol. J Phys Chem B 103(33):6851–6857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang X, Young MA, Lyandres O, Van Duyne RP (2005) Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc 127(12):4484–4489CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salvatore Giuffrida
    • 1
  • Lucia L. Costanzo
    • 1
  • Giorgio Ventimiglia
    • 2
  • Corrado Bongiorno
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze ChimicheUniversità degli Studi di CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.CPG ST MicroelectronicsCataniaItaly
  3. 3.IMM-CNRCataniaItaly

Personalised recommendations