Natural Language Semantics

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 289–318 | Cite as

The Semantics of Together

  • Friederike Moltmann


The semantic function of the modifier together in adnominal position has generally been considered to be that of preventing a distributive reading of the predicate. On the basis of a new range of data, I will argue that this view is mistaken. The semantic function of adnominal together rather is that of inducing a cumulative measurement of the group that together is associated with. The measurement-based analysis of adnominal together that I propose can also, with some modifications, be extended to adverbial occurrences of together.


Semantic Function Cumulative Measurement Distributive Reading 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bayer, S.: 1993, 'Let's get “together”', manuscript, Brown University.Google Scholar
  2. Beghelli, F. and T. Stowell: 1997, 'scope and Distributivity', in A. Szabolcsi (ed.), Ways of Scope Taking, pp. 72–154. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, M.: 1974, Some Extensions of a Montague Fragment of English, PhD dissertation, UCLA.Google Scholar
  4. Cresswell, M.: 1976, 'The Semantics of Degree', in B.H. Partee (ed.), Montague Grammar, pp. 261–292. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Hoeksema, J.: 1983, 'Plurality and Conjunction', in A. ter Meulen (ed.), Studies in Modeltheoretic Semantics (GRASS 1), pp. 63–83. Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  6. Kamp, H.: 1975, 'Two Theories of Adjectives', in E. L. Keenan (ed.), Formal Semantics of Natural Language, pp. 123–155. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  7. Keenan, E.: 1979, 'On Surface and Logical Form', in B. Kachru (ed.), Linguistics in the Seventies: Directions and Prospects, pp. 163–204. Dept. of Linguistics, University of Illinois, Urbana.Google Scholar
  8. Klein, E.: 1980, 'A Semantics for Positive and Comparative Adjectives', Linguistics and Philosophy 4, 1–45.Google Scholar
  9. Krantz, D., R. Luce, P. Suppes, and A. Tversky: 1971, Foundations of Measurement Theory, Volume 1, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Krifka, M.: 1990, 'Four Thousand Ships Passed through the Lock', Linguistics and Philosophy 13, 487–520.Google Scholar
  11. Krifka, M. et al. 1995, 'Genericity. An Introduction', in G.N. Carlson and F.J. Pelletier (eds.), The Generic Book, pp. 1–125. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  12. Lasersohn, P.: 1989, 'On the Readings of Plural Noun Phrases', Linguistic Inquiry 20, 130–134.Google Scholar
  13. Lasersohn, P.: 1990, 'Group Action and Spatio-Temporal Proximity', Linguistics and Philosophy 13, 179–206.Google Scholar
  14. Lerner, J.-Y. and M. Pinkal: 1992, 'Comparatives and Nested Quantification', in P. Dekker and M. Stokhof (eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth Amsterdam Colloquium, pp. 329–345. ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  15. Link, G.: 1983, 'The Logical Analysis of Plurals and Mass Nouns', in R. Bäuerle, U. Egli, and A. von Stechow (eds.), Semantics from Different Points of View, pp. 303–323. De Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  16. Moltmann, F.: 1992, Coordination and Comparatives, PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  17. Moltmann, F.: 1997a, Parts and Wholes in Semantics. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Moltmann, F.: 1997b, 'Part-Structure Modifiers', in M. Simons and T. Galloway (eds.), Proceedings of SALT 5, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.Google Scholar
  19. Moltmann, F.: 1998, 'Part Structures, Integrity and the Mass-Count Distinction', Synthese 116, 75–111.Google Scholar
  20. Rizzi, L.: 1990, Relativized Minimality, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  21. Roberts, C.: 1987, Modal Subordination, Anaphora; and Distributivity. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  22. Scha, R.: 1991, 'Distributive, Collective, and Cumulative Quantification', in J. Groenendijk, et al. (eds.), Formal Methods in the Study of Language, pp. 131–158. Mathematical Centre, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  23. Schwarzschild, R.: 1992, 'Together as a Non-distributive Marker', in P. Dekker and M. Stokhof (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th Amsterdam Colloquium. ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  24. Schwarzschild, R.: 1994, 'Plurals, Presuppositions, and the Sources of Distributivity', Natural Language Semantics 2, 201–248.Google Scholar
  25. Sportiche, D.: 1988, 'A Theory of Floating Quantifiers and Its Corollaries for Constituent Structure', Linguistic Inquiry 19, 425–449.Google Scholar
  26. Suppes, P. and J. Zinnes: 1963, 'Basic Measurement Theory', in R. D. Luce, R. Buch and E. Galanter (ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, Volume 1, pp. 1–76. Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Szabolcsi, A.: 1997, 'strategies of Scope-Taking', in A. Szabolcsi, (ed.), Ways of Scope-Taking, pp. l09–154. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friederike Moltmann
    • 1
  1. 1.University of StirlingDepartment of PhilosophyUK

Personalised recommendations