Natural Language Semantics

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 169–200 | Cite as

Exhaustivity as Agreement: The Case of Korean Man ‘only’



The focus particle man‘only’ in Korean shows different scopal behavior depending upon its syntactic environment. This non-uniform scope pattern cannot be accounted for if the particle is a scope-bearing element. This paper argues that the particle man is not a scope-bearing element, but an agreement morpheme that indicates the presence of a null head ONLY. Under this proposal, the particle man does not carry the exhaustive meaning of only; the null head does. Therefore, it is the position of the ONLY head, not that of the particle, that determines the scopal relation with respect to other quantificational elements. This paper also claims that there is a strong correlation between syntax and morphology (Baker’s Mirror Principle). Thus the relative order among the particle, case marker, and postposition reflects the hierarchy of corresponding functional heads. This helps detect the position of the ONLY head. The proposed analysis accounts for the scope patterns without making special stipulations about man-phrases.


Strong Correlation Relative Order Functional Head Case Marker Quantificational Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahn, S.-H. 1990Korean Quantification and Universal GrammarUniversity of Connecticut StorrsPhD dissertationGoogle Scholar
  2. Aoun, J., Benmamoun, E. 1998‘Minimality, Reconstruction, and PF movement’Linguistic Inquiry29569597Google Scholar
  3. Baker, M. 1985‘The Mirror Principle and Morphosyntactic Explanation’Linguistic Inquiry16373415Google Scholar
  4. Beck, S. 2000‘Star Operators* Episode 1: Defense of the Double Star’Kusumoto, K.Villalta, E. eds. University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 23: Issues in SemanticsDepartment of Linguistics, University of MassachusettsAmherst123Google Scholar
  5. Beck, S., Kim, S.-S. 1997‘On wh- and Operator Scope in Korean’Journal of East Asian Linguistics6339384Google Scholar
  6. Beghelli, F. 1995The Phrase Structure of Quantifier ScopeUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesPhD dissertationGoogle Scholar
  7. Beghelli, F., Stowell, T. 1994‘The Direction of Quantifier Movement’GLOW Newsletter325657Google Scholar
  8. Bonomi, A., Casalegno, P. 1993‘Only: Association with Focus in Event Semantics’Natural Language Semantics2145Google Scholar
  9. Cecchetto, C. 1999‘A Comparative Study of Left and Right Dislocation in Romance’Studia Linguistica534067Google Scholar
  10. Cecchetto, C., Chierchia, G. 1999‘Reconstruction in Dislocation Constructions and the Syntax/Semantics Interface’Shahin, K. N.Blake, S.Kim, E.-S. eds. Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics 17Stanford Linguistics AssociationStanford University, Stanford, CA132146Google Scholar
  11. Cho, S.: 2000. Three Form of Case Agreement in Korean, PhD dissertation, State University of New York, Stony Brook.Google Scholar
  12. Choe, H. S. 1995‘Focus and Topic Movement in Korean and Licensing’Kiss, K. eds. Discourse Configurational LanguagesOxford University PressOxford269334Google Scholar
  13. Choe, J.-W. 1998‘The Formal Analysis of the Particle man (in Korean)’Korean Semantics34165Google Scholar
  14. Choi, H.-W. 1997‘Topic and Focus in Korean: The Information Partition by Phrase Structure and Morphology’Sohn, HMHaig , J eds. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 6CSLI PublicationsStanford, CA545561Google Scholar
  15. Chomsky, N. 1993‘A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory’Hale, K.Keyser, S. J. eds. The View from Building 20MIT PressCambridge, MA152Google Scholar
  16. Chomsky, N. 1995The Minimalist ProgramMIT PressCambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  17. Chomsky, N. 2000‘Minimalist Inquiries: The Framework’Martin, R.Michaels, D.Uriagereka, J. eds. Step by Step: In Honor of Howard LasnikMIT PressCambridge, MA89155Google Scholar
  18. von Fintel, K. 1997‘Bare Plurals, Bare Conditionals, and Only’Journal of Semantics14156Google Scholar
  19. von Fintel, K. 2001, ‘Why Focus Movement Is Weird’, lecture Notes, MIT.Google Scholar
  20. Fox, D. 2000Economy and Semantic InterpretationMIT PressCambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  21. Fukaya, T., Hoji, H. 2000‘Stripping and Sluicing in Japanese and some Implications’Bird, S.Carnie, A.Haugen, J. D.Norquest, P. eds. Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics 18Stanford Linguistics AssociationStanford University, Stanford, CA145158Google Scholar
  22. Han, C.-h. 1998‘Asymmetry in the Interpretation of–(n)un in Korean’Akatsuka, N.Hoji, H.Iwasaki, S.Sohn, S.-O.Strauss, S. eds. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 7CSLI PublicationsStanford, CA115Google Scholar
  23. Hayashishita, J.-R. 2000‘Scope Ambiguity and ‘Scrambling’‘Billerey, R.Lillehaugen, B. D. eds. Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics 19Stanford Linguistics AssociationStanford University, Stanford, CA204217Google Scholar
  24. Heim, I., Kratzer, A. 1998Semantics in Generative GrammarBlackwellOxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Heycock, C., Doron, E. 2003‘Categorical Subjects’Gengo Kenkyu12395135Google Scholar
  26. Hoji, H. 1985Logical Form Constraints and Configurational Structures in JapaneseUniversity of WashingtonSeattlePhD dissertationGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoji, H. 1987‘Japanese Clefts and Reconstruction/Chain Binding Effects’paper presented at the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics 6University of Arizona, March 1987Google Scholar
  28. Horn, L. 1969‘A Presuppositional Analysis of Only and Even’Binnick, R. I.Davison, A.Green, G. M.Morgan, J. L eds. Papers from the 5th Regional MeetingChicago Linguistic SocietyChicago98107Google Scholar
  29. Jayaseelan, K. A. 2001‘IP-internal Topic and Focus Phrases’Studia Linguistica553975Google Scholar
  30. Karttunen, L. 1977‘Syntax and Semantics of Questions’Linguistics and Philosophy1344Google Scholar
  31. Kelepir, M.: 2001, Topics in Turkish Syntax: Clausal Structure and Scope, PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  32. Kratzer, A. 2002The Event Argument and the Semantics of Verbs msUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstGoogle Scholar
  33. Krifka, M. 1998‘Scope Inversion under the Rise-Fall Contour in German’Linguistic Inquiry2975112Google Scholar
  34. Kuh, H. 1987‘Plural Copying in Korean’Kuno, S.Lee, I.-H.Whitman, J.Maling, J.Kang, Y.-S.Kim, Y.-j. eds. Harvard Studies in Korean Linguistics 2HanshinSeoul239250Google Scholar
  35. Kuno, S. 1973The Structure of the Japanese LanguageMIT PressCambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  36. Ladusaw, W. 1992‘Expressing Negation’Barker, C.Dowty, D. eds. Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory 2CLC Publications, Cornell UniversityIthaca, NY220229Google Scholar
  37. Laka, I.: 1990, Negation in Syntax: On the Nature of Functional Categories and Projections, PhD dissertation, MIT. Google Scholar
  38. Lee, C. 2000‘Contrastive Predicates and Conventional Scales’Okrent, A.Boyle, J. eds. Papers from the 36th Regional MeetingChicago Linguistic SocietyChicago243257Google Scholar
  39. Lee, C. 2003‘Contrastive Topic and Proposition Structure’Sciullo, A. M eds. Asymmetry in GrammarJohn BenjaminsAmsterdam345371Google Scholar
  40. Lee, M. 2001, ‘Contrastive Topic vs. Contrastive Focus’, paper presented at ‘Topic and Focus: A Workshop on Intonation and Meaning’, University of California, Santa Barbara, July 2001.Google Scholar
  41. Lee, Y. 2004The Syntax and Semantics of Focus ParticlesPhD dissertationMITGoogle Scholar
  42. Link, G. 1983‘The Logical Analysis of Plurals and Mass Terms: A Lattice-Theoretical Approach’Bäuerle, R.Schwarze, C.Stechow, A. eds. Meaning, Use, and Interpretation of LanguageDe GruyterBerlin302323Google Scholar
  43. Miyagawa, S. 1987‘Wa and the WH Phrase’Hinds, J.Maynard, S.Iwasaki, S. eds. Perspectives on Topicalization: The Case of Japanese ‘wa’John BenjaminsAmsterdam185217Google Scholar
  44. Miyagawa, S. 1989Structure and Case Marking in JapaneseAcademic PressSan Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Grady, W. 1991Categories and CaseJohn BenjaminsAmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  46. Ovalle, L., Guerzoni, E. 2002‘Double NegationNegative Concordand Metalinguistic Negation’, paper presented at the 38th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, University of Chicago, April 2002Google Scholar
  47. Penka, D. 2002Zur Semantik der negativen Indefinita im DeutschenTübingen-Linguistik-Report Nr.1Universität TubingenGoogle Scholar
  48. Rizzi, L. 1997‘The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery’Haegeman, L. eds. Elements of GrammarKluwerDordrecht281337Google Scholar
  49. Robert, C. 1987Modal SubordinationAnaphoraand Distributivity, PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, AmherstGoogle Scholar
  50. Rooth, M. 1985Association with FocusPhD dissertationUniversity of Massachusetts, AmherstGoogle Scholar
  51. Saito, M. 1985Some Asymmetries in Japanese and Their Theoretical ImplicationsPhD dissertationMITGoogle Scholar
  52. Sauerland, U., Elbourne, P. 2002‘Total Reconstruction, PF Movement, and Derivational Order’Linguistic Inquiry33283319Google Scholar
  53. Sohn, K.-W. 1995Negative Polarity Items Scope and Economy, PhD dissertationUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsGoogle Scholar
  54. Stechow, A. 1993‘Die Aufgaben der Syntax’Jacobs, J.Stechow, A.Sternefeld, W.Vennemann, T. eds. Syntax–Ein internationales Handbuch zeitgenössischer ForschungDe GruyterBerlin188Google Scholar
  55. Tada, H. 1993A/A’ Partition in DerivationPhD dissertationMITGoogle Scholar
  56. Urushibara, S. 1991‘Ey/eykey: A Postposition or a Case Marker’Kuno, S.Lee, I.-H.Whitman, J.Maling, J.Kang, Y.-S.Kim, Y.-j. eds. Harvard Studies in Korean Linguistics 4HanshinSeoul421431Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Cognitive ScienceSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations