Advertisement

Mycopathologia

, Volume 182, Issue 3–4, pp 365–370 | Cite as

Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from a Castanopsis argyrophylla tree hollow (Mai-Kaw), Chiang Mai, Thailand

  • Kantarawee Khayhan
  • Ferry Hagen
  • Treepradab Norkaew
  • Tanpalang Puengchan
  • Teun Boekhout
  • Pojana Sriburee
Article

Abstract

The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from a tree hollow of a Castanopsis argyrophylla King ex Hook.f. (Fagaceae) in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Molecular characterization with amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and multi-locus sequence typing showed that this isolate belonged to genotype AFLP4/VGI representing C. gattii sensu stricto. Subsequent comparison of the environmental isolate with those from clinical samples from Thailand showed that they grouped closely together in a single cluster.

Keywords

Cryptococcus gattii AFLP genotyping Multi-locus sequence typing Environmental sampling Thailand 

References

  1. 1.
    Chayakulkeeree M, Perfect JR. Cryptococcosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006;20:507–544, v–vi.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hagen F, Khayhan K, Theelen B, Kolecka A, Polacheck I, Sionov E, et al. Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. Fungal Genet Biol. 2015;78:16–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hagen F, Illnait-Zaragozí M-T, Meis JF, Chew WHM, Curfs-Breuker I, Mouton JW, et al. Extensive genetic diversity within the Dutch clinical Cryptococcus neoformans population. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1918–26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Viviani MA, Cogliati M, Esposto MC, Lemmer K, Tintelnot K, Colom Valiente MF, et al. Molecular analysis of 311 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from a 30-month ECMM survey of cryptococcosis in Europe. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006;6:614–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dromer F, Mathoulin-Pélissier S, Launay O, Lortholary O, French Cryptococcosis Study Group. Determinants of disease presentation and outcome during cryptococcosis: the CryptoA/D study. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guinea J, Hagen F, Peláez T, Boekhout T, Tahoune H, Torres-Narbona M, et al. Antifungal susceptibility, serotyping, and genotyping of clinical Cryptococcus neoformans isolates collected during 18 years in a single institution in Madrid, Spain. Med Mycol. 2010;48:942–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hagen F, Illnait-Zaragozi M-T, Bartlett KH, Swinne D, Geertsen E, Klaassen CHW, et al. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities and amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping of a worldwide collection of 350 clinical, veterinary, and environmental Cryptococcus gattii isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:5139–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hagen F, Colom MF, Swinne D, Tintelnot K, Iatta R, Montagna MT, et al. Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe. Emerging Infect Dis. 2012;18:1618–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hagen F, Ceresini PC, Polacheck I, Ma H, van Nieuwerburgh F, Gabaldón T, et al. Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest. PLoS One. 2013;8:e71148.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kidd SE, Hagen F, Tscharke RL, Huynh M, Bartlett KH, Fyfe M, et al. A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:17258–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kidd SE, Chow Y, Mak S, Bach PJ, Chen H, Hingston AO, et al. Characterization of environmental sources of the human and animal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:1433–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Linares C, Colom MF, Torreblanca M, Esteban V, Romera Á, Hagen F. Environmental sampling of Ceratonia siliqua (carob) trees in Spain reveals the presence of the rare Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP7/VGIV. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2015;32:269–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nyazika TK, Hagen F, Meis JF, Robertson VJ. Cryptococcus tetragattii as a major cause of cryptococcal meningitis among HIV-infected individuals in Harare, Zimbabwe. J Infect. 2016;72:745–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaocharoen S, Ngamskulrungroj P, Firacative C, Trilles L, Piyabongkarn D, Banlunara W, et al. Molecular epidemiology reveals genetic diversity amongst isolates of the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex in Thailand. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2297.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leechawengwongs M, Milindankura S, Sathirapongsasuti K, Tangkoskul T, Punyagupta S. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii VGII in a tsunami survivor from Thailand. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2014;6:31–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Poonwan N, Mikami Y, Poosuwan S, Boon-Long J, Mekha N, Kusum M, et al. Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from clinical specimens in Thailand and their susceptibility to various antifungal agents. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997;13:335–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sukroongreung S, Nilakul C, Ruangsomboon O, Chuakul W, Eampokalap B. Serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients prior to and during the AIDS era in Thailand. Mycopathologia. 1996;135:75–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Littman ML. A culture medium for the primary isolation of fungi. Science. 1947;106:109–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Littman ML. Growth of pathogenic fungi on a new culture medium. Am J Clin Pathol. 1948;18:409–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tharavichitkul P, Kanjsnasthrti P, Panasampol K. Occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in dove excreta. Chiang Mai Med Bull. 1973;12:91–7.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Keerativasee S, Takarn P, Sanwong K, Tharavichitkul P, Sriburee P. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from avain droppings in Chiang Mai from December 2005 to May 2006. Chiang Mai Med J. 2008;47:149–54.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Polacheck I, Bennett JE. Improved diagnostic medium for separation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A and D) and Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B and C). J Clin Microbiol. 1982;15:535–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shaw CE, Kapica L. Production of diagnostic pigment by phenoloxidase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans. Appl Microbiol. 1972;24:824–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sriburee P, Khayhan S, Khamwan C, Panjaisee S, Tharavichitkul P. Serotype and PCR-fingerprints of clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Mycopathologia. 2004;158:25–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khayhan K, Hagen F, Pan W, Simwami S, Fisher MC, Wahyuningsih R, et al. Geographically structured populations of Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii in Asia correlate with HIV status and show a clonal population structure. PLoS One. 2013;8:e72222.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kuroki M, Phichaichumpon C, Yasuoka A, Chiranairadul P, Chosa T, Sirinirund P, et al. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from an endemic region of HIV-associated cryptococcosis in Thailand. Yeast. 2004;21:809–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pan W, Khayhan K, Hagen F, Wahyuningsih R, Chakrabarti A, Chowdhary A, et al. Resistance of Asian Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A is confined to few microsatellite genotypes. PLoS One. 2012;7:e32868.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Simwami SP, Khayhan K, Henk DA, Aanensen DM, Boekhout T, Hagen F, et al. Low diversity Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii multilocus sequence types from Thailand are consistent with an ancestral African origin. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001343.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tangwattanachuleeporn M, Somparn P, Poolpol K, Gross U, Weig M, Bader O. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from pigeon excreta in Chon Buri Province, Eastern Thailand. Med Mycol J. 2013;54:303–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chowdhary A, Randhawa HS, Boekhout T, Hagen F, Klaassen CH, Meis JF. Temperate climate niche for Cryptococcus gattii in Northern Europe. Emerging Infect Dis. 2012;18:172–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mitchell TG, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra MS. Environmental niches for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. In: Cryptococcus. American Society of Microbiology; 2011.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Refojo N, Perrotta D, Brudny M, Abrantes R, Hevia AI, Davel G. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from trunk hollows of living trees in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Med Mycol. 2009;47:177–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Springer DJ, Billmyre RB, Filler EE, Voelz K, Pursall R, Mieczkowski PA, et al. Cryptococcus gattii VGIII isolates causing infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California: identification of the local environmental source as arboreal. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004285.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vilcins I, Krockenberger M, Agus H, Carter D. Environmental sampling for Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from the Blue Mountains National Park, Sydney, Australia. Med Mycol. 2002;40:53–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chan M, Lye D, Win MK, Chow A, Barkham T. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of cryptococcosis in Singapore: predominance of Cryptococcus neoformans compared with Cryptococcus gattii. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;26:110–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen SC-A, Meyer W, Sorrell TC. Cryptococcus gattii infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014;27:980–1024.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Feng X, Yao Z, Ren D, Liao W, Wu J. Genotype and mating type analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from China that mainly originated from non-HIV-infected patients. FEMS Yeast Res. 2008;8:930–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Feng X, Yao Z, Ren D, Liao W. Simultaneous identification of molecular and mating types within the Cryptococcus species complex by PCR-RFLP analysis. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:1481–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grover N, Nawange SR, Naidu J, Singh SM, Sharma A. Ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii in decaying wood of trunk hollows of living trees in Jabalpur City of Central India. Mycopathologia. 2007;164:159–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koh TH, Tan AL, Lo YL, Oh H. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii meningitis in Singapore. Med Mycol. 2002;40:221–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lingegowda BP, Koh TH, Ong HS, Tan TT. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus gattii in Singapore. Singapore Med J. 2011;52:e160–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tay ST, Lim HC, Tajuddin TH, Rohani MY, Hamimah H, Thong KL. Determination of molecular types and genetic heterogeneity of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii in Malaysia. Med Mycol. 2006;44:617–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Taylor MB, Chadwick D, Barkham T. First reported isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from a patient in Singapore. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3098–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Xue X, Wu H, Wang K, Cao J, Shen D. Cryptococcosis by Cryptococcus gattii in China. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:1135–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kantarawee Khayhan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ferry Hagen
    • 3
  • Treepradab Norkaew
    • 4
  • Tanpalang Puengchan
    • 5
  • Teun Boekhout
    • 2
    • 6
  • Pojana Sriburee
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical SciencesUniversity of PhayaoMuangThailand
  2. 2.CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity CentreBasidiomycete and Yeast ResearchUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious DiseasesCanisius-Wilhelmina HospitalNijmegenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  5. 5.Queen Sirikit Botanic GardenChiang MaiThailand
  6. 6.Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBEA)University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations