, Volume 182, Issue 3–4, pp 413–423 | Cite as

Equine Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: A Comparative Literature Review and Evaluation of Fluconazole Monotherapy

  • C. J. Secombe
  • G. D. Lester
  • M. B. Krockenberger


Cryptococcus is the most common fungal respiratory pathogen in Australian horses, manifesting primarily as pulmonary granulomas. Disease severity at presentation is dependent on the athletic use of the horse. The diagnosis and estimation of disease severity are centred around clinical findings, cytological evaluation of respiratory tract secretions, diagnostic imaging, and antigen titre testing. Both the lateral flow assay and the latex cryptococcal antigen titre are used, and important similarities and differences between species are discussed. Cryptococcus gattii occurs with greater frequency than Cryptococcus neoformans in equine pulmonic cryptococcosis and can be successfully treated with enteral fluconazole monotherapy, with disease severity determining treatment length.


Equine Horse Cryptococcosis Pulmonic Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex Antigen titre 



The authors thank the referring veterinarians, Drs Arun Ramachandran, Paul O'Callaghan and Michael Procter and the staff at The Animal Hospital at Murdoch University for their assistance with these cases.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Secombe
    • 1
  • G. D. Lester
    • 1
  • M. B. Krockenberger
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

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