, Volume 181, Issue 11–12, pp 843–850 | Cite as

Fungal Keratitis in North India: Spectrum of Agents, Risk Factors and Treatment

  • Anup K. Ghosh
  • Amit Gupta
  • Shivaprakash M. Rudramurthy
  • Saikat Paul
  • Vinay Kumar Hallur
  • Arunaloke Chakrabarti


To assess the prevalence of fungal keratitis, we conducted a retrospective study over 7 years (2005 through 2011) at a tertiary care center in North India. Effort has been made to analyze the disease burden, spectrum of agents and treatment history. The findings were compared with an earlier study at the same center for any change in the epidemiology of the disease. Microbiology records were screened at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, to identify fungal keratitis cases, and available clinical records of those cases were analyzed. Of 2459 clinically suspected fungal keratitis cases, 765 (31 %) cases were direct microscopy confirmed. Of these microscopy-confirmed cases, fungi were isolated in 393 (51.4 %), with Aspergillus spp. ranked top (n = 187, 47.6 %), followed by melanized fungi (n = 86, 21.9 %) and Fusarium spp. (n = 64, 16 %). A male predominance of 78.7 % was noted with a peak in the incidence of fungal keratitis during post-monsoon season (September to November). A delay in diagnosis was significantly associated (p < 0.001) with keratitis cases due to melanized fungi. In comparison with an earlier study, higher isolation of melanized fungi was noted with a widening of the spectrum of agents identified. Thus, fungal keratitis due to Aspergillus spp. remains a serious ocular illness among the active male population in North India with relative rise of keratitis due to melanized fungi. The spectrum of agents causing fungal keratitis has broadened with many rare fungi that are implicated.


Fungal keratitis Melanized fungi Epidemiology North India 

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOC 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anup K. Ghosh
    • 1
  • Amit Gupta
    • 2
  • Shivaprakash M. Rudramurthy
    • 1
  • Saikat Paul
    • 1
  • Vinay Kumar Hallur
    • 1
  • Arunaloke Chakrabarti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical MicrobiologyPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

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