Advertisement

Mycopathologia

, Volume 181, Issue 1–2, pp 59–66 | Cite as

Superficial Fungal Infections in a French Teaching Hospital in Grenoble Area: Retrospective Study on 5470 Samples from 2001 to 2011

  • O. Faure-Cognet
  • H. Fricker-Hidalgo
  • H. Pelloux
  • M. T. Leccia
Article

Abstract

Background

Superficial fungal infections are predominantly caused by dermatophytes, but the spectrum of species involved is depending on geographic areas and lifestyle. Only few studies have recently described the French epidemiology of these infections, especially dermatophytosis.

Objectives

To determine the epidemiological situation of superficial fungal infections and the spectrum of dermatophytes in Grenoble area.

Patients/Methods

A retrospective study of mycological laboratory records from January 2001 to December 2011 was carried out among patients with suspected fungal infections in the Grenoble University Hospital. Samples (skin scrapings, nail clippings and hair specimens) were collected, and mycological analyses were carried out by conventional methods.

Results

A total of 5470 samples collected from 3740 patients were analysed. Among the 1984 (36.3 %) positive cultures, dermatophytes were identified in 1348/1984 (67.9 %) samples, non-dermatophytes in 636/1984 (32.1 %) samples (yeasts 24.4 %, moulds 7.7 %). Toenails and feet were the most frequent localizations collected (2032 samples, 37.1 %, 1181 samples, 21.5 %).

Conclusion

These data show the predominance (more than 92.6 %) of anthropophilic dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale and Trichophyton tonsurans). Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly (78.6 %) isolated dermatophyte. Among zoophilic dermatophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum and Microsporum persicolor were regularly isolated.

Keywords

Superficial mycoses Dermatophytes Epidemiology France Grenoble area 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Sabine Durville for critically editing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Ameen M. Epidemiology of superficial fungal infections. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:197–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Havlickova B, CZiaka VA, Friedrich M. Epidemiological trends in skin mycoses worldwide. Mycoses. 2008;51(suppl. 4):2–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seebacher C, Bouchara JP, Mignon B. Updates on the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:335–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alshawa K, Lacroix C, Benderdouche M, Mingui A, Derouin F. Feuilhade de Chauvin M. Increasing incidence of Trichophyton tonsurans in Paris, France: a 15-year retrospective study. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:1121–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Foulet F, Cremer G, Bourdon-Lanoy E, Wolkenstein P, Chosidow O, Bretagne S, Revuz J. Frequency of plantar dermatophytosis. A retrospective study 2002–2003. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2007;134:343–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robert R, Pihet M. Conventional methods for the diagnosis of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:295–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chabasse D, Contet-Audonneau N, Bouchara JP, Basile AM. Moisissures dermatophytes levures: du prélèvement au diagnostic. Ed. bioMérieux, France 2008.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jayatilake J, Tilakaratne W, Panagoda G. Candidal onychomycosis: a mini-review. Mycopathologia. 2009;168:165–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta AK, Ryder JE, Summerbell RC. The diagnosis of nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis. Int J Derm. 2003;42:272–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gupta A, Drummond-Main C, Cooper E, Brintnell W, Piraccini B, Tosti A. Systematic review of nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis: diagnosis, clinical types, epidemiology, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;66:494–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shemer A, Davidovici B, Grunwald MH, Trau H, Amichai B. New criteria for the laboratory diagnosis of nondermatophyte moulds in onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:37–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Summerbell RC, Cooper E, Bunn U, Jamieson F, Gupta AK. Onychomycosis: a critical study of techniques and criteria for confirming the etiologic significance of nondermatophytes. Med Mycol. 2005;43:39–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Budak A, Bogusz B, Tokcaryzyk M, Trojanowska D. Dermatophytes isolated from superficial fungal infections in Krakow, Poland, between 1995 and 2010. Mycoses. 2013;56:422–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Drakensjö IT, Chryssanthou E. Epidemiology of dermatophyte infections in Stockholm, Sweden: a retrospective study from 2005 to 2009. Med Mycol. 2011;49:484–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Miklić P, Skerlev M, Budimcić D, Lipozencić J. The frequency of superficial mycoses according to agents isolated during a ten-year period (1999–2008) in Zagreb area, Croatia. Med Mycol. 2010;48:476–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Monod M, Jaccoud S, Zaugg C, Léchenne B, Baudraz F, Panizzon R. Survey of dermatophyte infections in the Lausanne area Switzerland. Dermatology. 2002;205:201–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lagier L, Machet L, Poisson DM, Estève E. Outbreak of dermatophytosis in a high-level French judo team: prospective study 2006/2011. Efficacy of a therapeutic protocol introduced in 2004/2005. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012;139:717–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Savin C, Huck S, Rolland C, et al. Multicenter Evaluation of a commercial PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay diagnostic kit (Onychodiag) for diagnosis of dermatophytic onychomycosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1205–10.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Azambuja C, Pimmel L, Klafke G, Xavier M. Onychomycosis: clinical, mycological and in vitro susceptibility testing of isolates of Trichophyton rubrum. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89:581–6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nenoff P, Krüger C, Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Tietz H. Mycology—an update. Part 1: dermatomycoses: causative agents, epidemiology and pathogenesis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2014;12:188–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Panasiti V, Devirgiliis V, Borroni RG, et al. Epidemiology of dermatophytic infections in Rome, Italy: a retrospective study from 2002 to 2004. Med Mycol. 2007;45:57–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vena G, Chieco P, Posa F, Garofalo A, Bosco A, Cassano N. Epidemiology of dermatophytoses: retrospective analysis from 2005 to 2010 and comparison with previous data from 1975. New Microbiol. 2012;35:207–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Di Chiacchio N, Suarez M, Madeira C, Louriero W. An observational and descriptive study of the epidemiology of and therapeutic approach to onychomycosis in dermatology offices in Brazil. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(suppl. 1):3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burzykowski T, Molenberghs G, Abeck D, et al. High prevalence of foot diseases in Europe: results of the Achilles Project. Mycoses. 2003;46:496–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scher RK, Baran R. Onychomycosis in clinical practice: factors contributing to recurrence. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:5–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Erbagci Z, Tuncel A, Zer Y, Balci I. A prospective epidemiologic survey on the prevalence of onychomycosis and dermatophytosis in male boarding school residents. Mycopathologia. 2005;159:347–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hay R. Literature review. Onychomycosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19(suppl. 1):1–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Seebacher C, Brasch J, Abeck D, et al. Onychomycosis. Mycoses. 2007;50:321–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guilhermetti E, Takahachi G, Suemi Shinobu C, Estivalet Svidzinski TI. Fusarium spp. as agents of onychomycosis in immunocompetent hosts. Int Dermatol. 2007;46:822–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moreno G, Arenas R. Other fungi causing onychomycosis. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:160–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jankowska-Konsur A, Dylag M, Hryncewicz-Gwod A, Plomer-Niezgoda E, Szepietowski J. A 5-year survey of dermatomycoses in southwest Poland, years 2003–2007. Mycoses. 2009;54:162–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kieliger S, Glatz M, Cozzio A, Bosshard PP. Tinea capitis and tinea faciei in the Zurich area—an 8-year survey of trends in the epidemiology and treatment patterns. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015;29:1524–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cafarchia C, Romito D, Sasanelli M, Lia R, Capelli G, Otranto D. The epidemiology of canine and feline dermatophytoses in Southern Italy. Mycoses. 2004;47:508–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Weger W, Ilkit MA, Smolle J. Epidemiology of tinea capitis in Europe: current state and changing patterns. Mycoses. 2007;50(suppl. 2):6–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Faure-Cognet
    • 1
  • H. Fricker-Hidalgo
    • 1
  • H. Pelloux
    • 1
  • M. T. Leccia
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Parasitology-MycologyGrenoble University HospitalGrenoble Cedex 09France
  2. 2.DermatologyGrenoble University HospitalGrenoble Cedex 09France

Personalised recommendations