, Volume 180, Issue 5–6, pp 299–303 | Cite as

Mini-Review of Published Reports on Coccidioidomycosis in China

  • Xiao Li Wang
  • Si Wang
  • Chun Li An


Coccidioidomycosis is a deep mycotic infection endemic to Americas. Although it has also been reported to occur in non-endemic areas, it has rarely been reported in China. We reviewed the literature on case reports of coccidioidomycosis in China from 1958 to 2015. A total of 30 cases were reported from 11 provinces in China, and 23 (76.7 %) cases were men, and 23 (76.7 %) were in 30–60 years old. Twenty-seven (90.0 %) cases were reported from southern China. Twenty-four (80.0 %) cases had no history of exposure in endemic areas. Three cases were immunosuppressed, four cases had chronic disease, and 23 cases (76.7 %) were otherwise healthy. Twenty cases (66.6 %) had related lung infection, six had skin infection, three cases were in lymph node, and one in the cornea, one in the bone and joint, and three had systemic disseminated infection. All of the 30 cases were diagnosis upon finding spherules in histological examination. Interestingly, 12 (40.0 %) patients underwent surgery and removed the focus of infection because they were misdiagnosed or suspected of tumor or cancer previously. Fifteen cases (50.0 %) were treated with amphotericin B, fluconazole, clotrimazole or ketoconazole. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis is complex, and misdiagnosis can occur easily in non-epidemic areas such as China.


Coccidioidomycosis Case report Literature review China 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC: 81370189 and 81200653). We thank LetPub and Dr. Wu Di for revising the manuscript regarding the correct use of English.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest



  1. 1.
    Brown J, Benedict K, Park BJ, et al. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology. Clin Epidemiol. 2013;5:185–97.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thompson Iii GR, Stevens DA, Clemons KV, et al. Call for a california coccidioidomycosis consortium to face the top ten challenges posed by a recalcitrant regional disease. Mycopathologia. 2015;179:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Litvintseva AP, Marsden-Haug N, Hurst S, et al. Valley fever: finding new places for an old disease: coccidioides immitis found in Washington State soil associated with recent human infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:e1–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jehangir W, Tadepalli GS, Sen S, et al. Coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis: endemic mycotic co-infections in the HIV patient. J Clin Med Res. 2015;7:196–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kahn A, Carey EJ, Blair JE. Universal fungal prophylaxis and risk of coccidioidomycosis in liver transplant recipients living in an endemic area. Liver Transpl. 2015;21:353–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gan D, Guo ML, He YG. First case of primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis. Chin J Pathol. 1958;2:107–14 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mu RW, Chen SL. One case report of coccidioidomycosis and study on the pathogenic mycosis. J Qingdao Med Coll. 1963;2:7–10 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wu XC, Xu AR. Coccidioidomycosis (report of two cases). J Gannan Med Coll. 1985;2:34–7 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fu XX, Zhang A, Li MF, Yuan KL. One cases report of advancing coccidioidomycosis. Shanghai Med. 1988;11(12):736–40 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li YP, Yi YZ, Feng GG, Lin JX. One case of primary corneal coccidioidomycosis. Chin J Ophthalmol. 1995;31(5):362 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhu JJ, Luo YL, Liu JS. One case of skin coccidioidomycosis complex Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patient. Chin J Dermatol. 1998;12(4):232–3.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koehler AP, Cheng AF, Chu KC, Chan CH, Ho AS, Lyon DJ. Successful treatment of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with amphotericin B lipid complex. J Infect. 1998;36(1):113–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu P, Gu XS. One case and died in systemic coccidioidomycosis complicating with acute meningitis. J Forensic Med. 1999;15(2):114–5 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ceng XJ, Hu RC, Ren JL. One case of lung coccidioidomycosis misdiagnosed as lung cancer. Med J. 2002;12(2):112 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Geng YH, Su YY, Chen PH, Zhou F. One case of primary bone coccidioidomycosis. Chin J Pathol. 2003;32(2):182 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ouyang WX, You JY, Zhu YM, Chen WJ. A case of infantile coccidioidomycosis. Chin J Pediatr. 2008;46(12):934–5 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gao W, Zhang SL, Zhang XM, Zou Q. Case report of a primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and literature review. Pract Med. 2008;24(7):1262–3 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xu QY, Wang YH, Jin M, Gao YB. Case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Chin Med J. 2009;89(28):1998 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kwok HK, Chan JW, Li IW, Chu SY, Lam CW. Coccidioidomycosis as a rare cause of pneumonia in non-endemic areas: a short exposure history should not be ignored. Respirology. 2009;14(4):617–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lian NF, Lin QC, Lin X. Clinical analysis of 8 cases of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Int J Respir. 2010;30(5):280–2 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liang CP, Hu LH. One case with coccidioidal meningitis. J Stubborn Dis. 2009;8(9):540 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yu BY, Wu HC, He XL, Ding HX. One case of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Chin J Tuberc Respir. 2010;33(3):227–8 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zong F, Jie WP, Huang M, Zhu Q, Chen L, Zhang ZH. Case of pulmonary coccidioidal infection and literature review. Chin J Tuberc Respir J. 2010;33(3):193–6 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lan F, Tong YZ, Huang H, Xiong WN, Xu YJ, Xiong SD. Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in China. Respirology. 2010;15(4):722–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tang TH, Tsang OT. Images in clinical medicine. Fungal infection from sweeping in the wrong place. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(2):e3.27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang ZY, Wen SL, Ying KJ. A case study of imported pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2011;12(4):298–302.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Charlton V, Ramsdell K, Sehring S. Intrauterine transmission of coccidioidomycosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999;18:561–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gaidici A, Saubolle MA. Transmission of coccidioidomycosis to a human via a cat bite. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:505–6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen CH, Shih JF, Hsu YT, et al. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis with lung, skin and lymph node involvement: report of a case. J Formos Med Assoc. 1991;90:788–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Muñoz-Hernández B, Palma-Cortés G, Cabello-Gutiérrez C, et al. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:213.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gazzoni FF, Severo LC, Marchiori E, et al. Fungal diseases mimicking primary lung cancer: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Mycoses. 2014;57:197–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Malo J, Luraschi-Monjagatta C, Wolk DM, et al. Update on the diagnosis of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11:243–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated HospitalChina Medical UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Basic Medical SciencesChina Medical UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations