, Volume 177, Issue 5–6, pp 299–307 | Cite as

Prevalent Drug Resistance Among Oral Yeasts from Asymptomatic Patients in Hainan, China

  • Jinyan Wu
  • Hong Guo
  • Guohui Yi
  • Limin Zhou
  • Xiaowen He
  • Xianxi Huang
  • Huamin Wang
  • Weiling Xue
  • Jianping Xu


The oral cavity is a significant niche of the human microbiome and a gateway for the microbiota in many other human body sites. As a result, understanding the oral microbiota has broad implications for the prevention and management of human infectious diseases. Opportunistic yeast infections are among the most prevalent fungal infections of humans, and most opportunistic yeast pathogens are common residents of the oral mucosa. However, relatively little is known about the drug susceptibility profiles of oral yeasts. Here, we report the species distribution and patterns of antifungal susceptibility profiles among 313 yeasts isolated from the oral cavities of 301 asymptomatic hospitalized patients in Hainan Province in southern China. These yeasts were tested for their susceptibilities to the following five drugs: amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and fluorocytosine. Since none of the sampled hosts had taken any antifungal drugs at least 3 months before samples were taken, we hypothesized that little or no drug resistance should be observed. Contrary to our expectations, our analyses identified that 29 % (91/313) of the isolates were resistant to at least one drug and 14.3 % (45/313) were resistant to two or more of the five common drugs. The potential sources of the observed resistance were discussed.


Antifungal resistance Oral yeasts Candida Geographic differences Origin of drug resistance 



We thank the following people for helping with our sample collections: Leilei ZHANG, Fei LIU, and Yue DONG. Financial support for this project came from the Hainan Provincial Key Science Project (Grant numbers 090214 and 801010); the Department of Education of Hainan Province (Hjkj2012-36); and a training grant from Hainan Medical College (HY2010-009).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinyan Wu
    • 1
  • Hong Guo
    • 1
  • Guohui Yi
    • 1
  • Limin Zhou
    • 1
  • Xiaowen He
    • 1
  • Xianxi Huang
    • 1
  • Huamin Wang
    • 1
  • Weiling Xue
    • 1
  • Jianping Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Public Research LaboratoryHainan Medical UniversityHaikouChina
  2. 2.Department of BiologyMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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