, Volume 175, Issue 5–6, pp 477–488 | Cite as

Challenges in the Therapy of Chromoblastomycosis

  • Flavio Queiroz-Telles
  • Daniel Wagner de C L Santos


Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is an implantation mycosis mainly occurring in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long-term therapy with systemic antifungals flanked by various physical treatment regimens. As in other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease; nowadays, therapy is mainly based on a few open trials and on expert opinions. Itraconazole, either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been employed successfully in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present paper, the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient’s outcome.


Implantation mycoses Subcutaneous mycoses Chromomycosis Black fungi Melanized fungi Dematiaceous Fonsecaea sp. Cladophialophora sp. Verrucous Muriform Sclerotic Antifungals Itraconazole Posaconazole Terbinafine Photodynamic therapy 



We thank Professor Sybren de Hoog for critical review of the manuscript.


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Flavio Queiroz-Telles
    • 1
  • Daniel Wagner de C L Santos
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Public HealthFederal University of ParanaCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Special Mycology Laboratory, LEMI, Department of MedicineFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Institute of Infectious Diseases Emílio RibasSão PauloBrazil

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