In Vitro Evaluation of Phospholipase, Proteinase, and Esterase Activities of Candida parapsilosis and Candida metapsilosis
- 231 Downloads
The aim of this study is to characterize extracellular phospholipase, proteinase, and esterase activities of Candida parapsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolated from clinical sources. Using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH) gene fragment, we identified 20 as C. parapsilosis and 11 as C. metapsilosis from 31 isolates of C. parapsilosis species complex. No C. orthopsilosis was identified. A significantly high isolation frequency of C. metapsilosis (35.5%) was observed. Subsequent evaluation of enzymatic profile showed that 90.5% of C. parapsilosis and 91.7% of C. metapsilosis isolates were phospholipase producers. No difference in phospholipase activity was observed between two species. In terms of proteinase, 81.0% of C. parapsilosis and 83.3% of C. metapsilosis isolates were positive. A higher level of proteinase activity was detected in C. parapsilosis. A remarkably high proportion of both C. parapsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates exhibited strong phospholipase and proteinase activities, suggesting that the production of these two enzymes might be common for them. On the other hand, both species similarly displayed rare esterase activity, with only one C. parapsilosis and two C. metapsilosis isolates being positive. Our data may further add to the confusion concerning the hydrolytic enzymatic activities of the C. parapsilosis complex, and a wider collection of isolates and standardized methods may help to address the issue.
KeywordsCandida parapsilosis Candida metapsilosis Identification Phospholipase Proteinase Esterase
We would like to thank Prof. Frank C. Odds and Dr. Donna M. MacCallum for providing two reference strains used in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.
- 1.Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Jones RN, Sader HS, Fluit AC, Hollis RJ, Messer SA. International surveillance of bloodstream infections due to Candida species: frequency of occurrence and in vitro susceptibilities to fluconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole of isolates collected from 1997 through 1999 in the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3254–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Almirante B, Rodriguez D, Cuenca-Estrella M, Almela M, Sanchez F, Ayats J, Alonso-Tarres C, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Pahissa A. Epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis of Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infections: case-control population-based surveillance study of patients in Barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1681–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Colombo AL, Nucci M, Park BJ, Nouér SA, Arthington-Skaggs B, da Matta DA, Warnock D, Morgan J, For the Brazilian Network Candidemia Study. Epidemiology of candidemia in Brazil: a nationwide sentinel surveillance of candidemia in eleven medical centers. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2816–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Lockhart SR, Messer SA, Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ. Geographic distribution and antifungal susceptibility of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in comparison to the closely related species Candida parapsilosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2659–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Gomez-Lopez A, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Rodriguez D, Almirante B, Pahissa A, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Cuenca-Estrella M, Barcelona Candidemia Project Study Group. Prevalence and susceptibility profile of Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis: results from population-based surveillance of candidemia in Spain. Antimicro Agents Chemother. 2008;52:1506–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Goncalves SS, Amorim CS, Nucci M, Padovan ACB, Briones MRS, Melo ASA, Colombo AL. Prevalence rates and antifungal susceptibility profiles of the Candida parapsilosis species complex: results from a nationwide surveillance of candidaemia in Brazil. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:885–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Mirhendi H, Brita B, Schonheyder HC, Christensen JJ, Fuursted K, et al. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal for a new RFLP profile for differentiation. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:414–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Franca EJG, Furlaneto-Maia L, Quesada RMB, Favero D, Oliveira MT, Furlaneto MC. Haemolytic and proteinase activities in clinical isolates of Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis with reference to the isolation anatomic site. Mycoses. 2010 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
- 31.Pereira CA, Da Costa ACBP, Machado AKS, Beltrame M Jr, et al. Enzymatic activity, sensitivity to antifungal drugs and Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil by Candida strains isolated from the oral cavities of breastfeeding infants and in their mothers’ mouths and nipples. Mycopathologia. 2011;171:103–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Ghannoum MA, Jurevic RJ, Mukherjee PK, Cui F, Sikaroodi M, Naqvi A, Gillevet PM. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6:e100713.Google Scholar