, Volume 172, Issue 3, pp 227–232 | Cite as

Disseminated Cryptococcosis in a Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Patient with Late-Onset Neutropenia Following Rituximab-CHOP Chemotherapy: A Case Report and Literature Review

  • Yuji Hirai
  • Yusuke Ainoda
  • Takayo Shoji
  • Takahiro Fujita
  • Kentaro Yoshinaga
  • Masayuki Shiseki
  • Naoki Mori
  • Masanao Teramura
  • Kyoichi Totsuka
  • Toshiko Motoji


Rituximab-related late-onset neutropenia (R-LON) is an adverse event associated with rituximab. A 65-year-old woman presented with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the kidney without bone marrow involvement. She was treated with 4 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy consisting of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone at 4-week intervals. Rituximab was also administrated of the second, third, fourth CHOP cycles. She developed a high fever of 38°C, nausea, and severe neutropenia following the four cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy. Her leukocyte count was 160/μl without neutrophils. Initially, a blood and pleural fluid and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. Once she became asymptomatic following treatment with fluconazole and neutropenia was recovered with lenograstim, she had neck stiffness and admitted soon. Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) culture was positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. Treatment with amphotericin B(AMPH-B) and flucytosine(5-FC) was initiated as diagnosis of cryptococcus meningitis. Lenograstim was administrated for 9 months, and amount of dose was 9,750 μg. Cryptococcosis with malignant lymphoma is rare disease, and previously 17 cases were reported. Of note, mortality of disseminated cryptococcosis with malignant lymphoma is 54%. The more and more rituximab is widely used; the cases of severe infection in R-LON may increase.


Rituximab Neutropenia Late onset Cryptococcosis Malignant lymphoma 


Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuji Hirai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yusuke Ainoda
    • 1
  • Takayo Shoji
    • 1
  • Takahiro Fujita
    • 1
  • Kentaro Yoshinaga
    • 2
  • Masayuki Shiseki
    • 2
  • Naoki Mori
    • 2
  • Masanao Teramura
    • 2
  • Kyoichi Totsuka
    • 1
  • Toshiko Motoji
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Infectious DiseaseTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of HematologyTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan

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