, Volume 169, Issue 4, pp 235–239 | Cite as

Tinea Capitis in Southeastern China: A 16-Year Survey

  • Min Zhu
  • Li Li
  • Jiajun Wang
  • Chaoying Zhang
  • Kefei Kang
  • Qiangqiang Zhang


This survey was a retrospective of a 16-year (1993–2008) study on the incidence, clinical features, and etiological agents of tinea capitis mainly representing the Southeastern China. The diagnosis was confirmed by direct microscopic examination. Eight hundred and sixty-six patients with tinea capitis, 381 males (44%) and 485 females (56%), were enrolled in this study. Patients were between 20 days and 84 years old with an average of 10.5 years and the peak incidence was in the age group of 6–10 (48.5%). Five hundred and sixty-two patients (64.9%) were ectothrix and 303 patients (35.0%) were endothrix with only one patient was favus. The incidence of tinea capitis from 1993 was gradually increasing and reaching to its peak in 2001. Positive cultures of dermatophytes were obtained in 715 patients: Microsporum canis (62.4%) was predominant, followed by Trichophyton violaceum (19.0%), Trichophyton tousurans (9.8%). M. canis was the major pathogen for ectothrix infection, while T. violaceum and T. tousurans contributed to the most endothrix form. M. canis, T. violaceum, and T. rubrum were the major pathogens for kerion.


Tinea capitis Dermatophyte Ectothrix Endothrix China 


  1. 1.
    Sberna F, Farella V, Geti V, et al. Epidemiology of the dermatophytoses in the Florence area of Italy: 1985–1990. Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum infections. Mycopathologia. 1993;122:153–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sobera JO, Elewski BE. In: Bolognia JL, editor. Dermatology, 2nd ed. London: Mosby 2008; p. 1141.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seebacher C, Abeck D, Brasch J, et al. Tinea capitis: ringworm of the scalp. Mycoses. 2007;50:218–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dolenc-Voljc M. Dermatophyte infections in the Ljubljana region, Slovenia, 1995–2002. Mycoses. 2005;48:181–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Romano C. Tinea capitis in Siena, Italy. An 18-year survey. Mycoses. 1999;42:559–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prohic A. An epidemiological survey of tinea capitis in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina over a 10-year period. Mycoses. 2008;51:161–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Elewski BE. Tinea capitis: a current perspective. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:1–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta AK, Summerbell RC. Increased incidence of Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis in Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 1996. Med Mycol. 1998;36:55–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leeming JG, Elliott TS. The emergence of Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis in Birmingham, U.K. Br J Dermatol. 1995;133:929–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sugita T, Shiraki Y, Hiruma M. Genotype analysis of the variable internal repeat region in the rRNA gene of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from Japanese Judo practitioners. Microbiol Immunol. 2006;50:57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fuller LC. Changing face of tinea capitis in Europe. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:115–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deng S, Bulmer GS, Summerbell RC, et al. Changes in frequency of agents of tinea capitis in school children from Western China suggest slow migration rates in dermatophytes. Med Mycol. 2008;46:421–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moraes MS, Godoy-Martínez P, Alchorne MM, et al. Incidence of Tinea capitis in São Paulo, Brazil. Mycopathologia. 2006;162:91–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ayaya SO, Kamar KK, Kakai R. Aetiology of tinea capitis in school children. East Afr Med J. 2001;78:531–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jha BN, Garg VK, Agrawal S, et al. Tinea capitis in eastern Nepal. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:100–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jahromi ShB, Khaksar AA. Aetiological agents of tinea capitis in Tehran (Iran). Mycoses. 2006;49:65–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mohsin MS, Della C, Titos PB. Tinea capitis among rural school children of the district of Magude, in Maputo province, Mozambique. Mycoses. 2006;49:480–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grills CE, Bryan PL, O’Moore E, et al. Microsporum canis: report of a primary school outbreak. Australas J Dermatol. 2007;48:88–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min Zhu
    • 1
  • Li Li
    • 1
  • Jiajun Wang
    • 1
  • Chaoying Zhang
    • 1
  • Kefei Kang
    • 2
  • Qiangqiang Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.The Center for Medical Mycology, Department of Dermatology, Huashan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations