Cryptococcus neoformans Isolated from Passerine and Psittacine Bird Excreta in the State of Paraná, Brazil
- 199 Downloads
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic basidiomycete yeast that causes life-threatening infections as meningoencephalitis primarily in immunocompromised hosts, generally associated with AIDS. The source of this organism is mainly pigeon excreta; however, other avian species’ excreta are implicated as a source of this yeast. The occurrence of C. neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in bird excreta in the state of Paraná in Brazil was determined in this study. A total of 141 samples of Passerine and Psittacine excreta from captive birds were collected. Additionally, 25 clinical samples from Hospital de Clínicas, in the state of Paraná were also analyzed. The determination of molecular and mating type of the isolates was performed by PCR fingerprinting, multiplex PCR, and mating type PCR. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (VNI) was isolated from 36 (25.53%) of Passerine and Psittacine excreta samples. Almost all clinical samples, except one (C. gattii VGI), were classified as C. neoformans var. grubii (VNI). All environmental and clinical isolates were mating type α. These findings reinforce that, besides pigeon excreta, the excreta of these birds can also be a reservoir of C. neoformans in domestic and public environments and is of zoonotic importance to immunocompromised patients.
KeywordsAvian excreta Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcus gattii Passerines Psittacines
This work was approved by “Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Renováveis” (IBAMA) and supported in part by grants from “Fundação Araucária” and “Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Nível Superior” (CAPES). The authors wish to thank Dr. Gillian Shaw for the revision of this manuscript as well as the trainees and technicians of CETAS PUCPR/IBAMA and Mycology and Serology Laboratories of Hospital de Clínicas and, lastly, Dr. Márcia dos Santos Lazéra (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).
- 1.Casadeval A, Perfect JR. Cryptococcus neoformans. Washington: ASM Press; 1998. p.541.Google Scholar
- 2.Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE. Medical mycology. Philadelphia: Lea e Figiber; 1992.Google Scholar
- 4.Ministério da Saúde. Coordenação do programa nacional de DTS/AIDS. Brasília, 2002. http://www.aids.gov.br.Accessed 20 Feb 2006.
- 20.Know-Chung KJ, Polacheck I, Bennett JE. Improved diagnostic medium for separation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype A and D) and Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii (serotype B and C). J Clin Microbiol. 1982;15:535–7.Google Scholar
- 23.Chaturvedi S, Rodeghier B, Fan J, McClelland CM, Wickes B, Chaturvedi V. Direct PCR of Cryptococcus neoformans MATα and MATa pheromones to determine mating types, ploidy, and variety: a tool for epidemiological and molecular pathogenesis studies. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:2007–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Swinne-Desgain D. Cryptococcus neoformans of saprophytic origin. Sabourandia 1975;13:303–8.Google Scholar