, 164:265 | Cite as

Acid proteinase, phospholipase, and biofilm production of Candida species isolated from blood cultures



Three virulence factors comprising proteinase, phospholipase, and biofilm among 68 Candida albicans and 31 non-albicans Candida strains (11 C. tropicalis, 8 C. parapsilosis, 6 C. glabrata, 4 C. guillermondii, 2 C. krusei) isolated from blood cultures were analyzed. In total, 61 (89.7%) C. albicans strains were detected as proteinase positive whereas eight (25.8%) non-albicans Candida strains were proteinase positive (P < 0.05). Phospholipase production was detected in 41 (60.3%) C. albicans strains. All non-albicans Candida strains were phospholipase negative. Biofilm production was determined by both visual and spectrophotometric methods. Eight (11.8%) of C. albicans strains and 13 (41.93%) of 31 non-albicans Candida strains were biofilm positive with two of the methods (P < 0.05). According to our results, we may suggest that detection of hydrolytic enzyme and biofilm production abilities of the Candida isolates in clinical mycology laboratories may warn the clinican for a possible hematogenous infection.


Virulence Candida Blood 


  1. 1.
    Wright W, Wenzel R. Nosocomial Candida. Epidemiology, transmission and prevention. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997;11:411–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jarwis WR. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections, with emphasis on Candida species. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:1526–30.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krcmery V, Barnes AJ. Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance. J Hosp Infect 2002;50:243–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haynes K. Virulence in Candida species. Trends Microbiol 2001;12:591–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Basu S, Gugnani HC, Joshi S, Gupta N. Distribution of Candida species in different clinical sources in Delhi, India, and proteinase and phospholipase activity of Candida albicans isolates. Rev Iberoam Micol 2003;20:137–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shin JH, Kee SJ, Shin MG, et al. Biofilm production by isolates of Candida species recovered from non-neutropenic patients: comparison of bloodstream isolates with isolates from other sources. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:1244–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ruzicka F, Hola V, Votova M, Tejkalova RF. Detection and significance of biofilm formation in yeast isolated from hemocultures. Klin Mikrobiol Infeck Lec 2006;12:150–5.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1998. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:128–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chakrabarti A, Nayak N, Talwar P. In vitro proteinase production by Candida species. Mycopathologia 1991;114:163–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yücel A, Kantarcıoğlu AS. The determination of some virulence factors (phospholipase, protease, germ tube formation and adherence) of C. albicans and the correlative relationship of these factors. Turk J Infect 2001;15:517–25.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Branchini ML, Pfaller MA, Chalberg JR, Frempong T, Isenberg HD. Genotypic variation and slime production among blood and catheter isolates of Candida parapsilosis. J Clin Microbiol 1994;32:452–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pfaller MA, Jones RN, Doern GV, Sader HS, Hollis RJ, Messer SA for the SENTRY participant group. International surveillance of bloodstream infections due to Candida species: frequency of occurrence and antifungal susceptibilities of isolates collected in 1997 in the United States, Canada and South America for the SENTRY program. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:1886–9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Richett H, Roux P, Des Champs C, Esnault Y, Andremont A, French candidemia study group. Candidemia in French hospitals: incidence rates and characteristics. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002;8:405–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bernardis FD, Sullivan PA, Cassone A. Aspartyl proteinases of Candida albicans and their role in pathogenicity. Medical Mycology 2001;39:303–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ibrahım AS, Mirbod F, Filler SC, et al. Evidence implicating phospholipase as a virulence factor of Candida albicans. Infect Immun 1995;63:1993–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ozkan S, Kaynak F, Kalkancı A, Abbasoğlu U, Kustimur S. Slime production and proteinase activity of Candida species isolated from blood samples and the comparison of these activities with minimum inhibitory concentration values of antifungal agents. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2005;100:319–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kantarcioglu AS, Yucel A. Phospholipase and proteinase activities in clinical Candida isolates with reference to the sources of strains. Mycoses 2002;45:160–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dagdeviren M, Cerikcioglu N, Karavus M. Acid proteinase, phospholipase and adherence properties of Candida parapsilosis strains isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. Mycoses 2005;48:321–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumar CP, Kumar SS; Menon T. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of clinical isolates of Candida from immunocompromised patients. Mycopathologia 2006;161:213–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jabra-Rizk MA, Falkler WA, Meiller TF. Fungal biofilm and drug resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:14–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cerikcioglu N, İlki A, Bilgen H, Ozek E, Metin F, Kalaca S. The relationship between candidemia and candidal colonization and virulence factors of colonizing strains in preterm infants. Turk J Pediatr 2004;46:245–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gulce Gokce
    • 1
  • Nilgun Cerikcioglu
    • 1
  • Aysegul Yagci
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Microbiology Marmara University School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations