Image watermarking is one of the reliable methods which easily retains integrity and confidentiality of images against illegitimate users thereby ensuring copyright protection. In this paper a new image watermarking technique is proposed which employs fusion of discrete wavelet transform (DWT), homomorphic transform (HT), singular value decomposition along with Arnold transform (AT). In this work first level DWT is performed on host image which results in various subbands (LL, HL, LH and HH). HL subband is chosen which is further transformed by HT to decompose it in illumination and reflectance components. The watermark is scrambled with AT in order to strengthen security towards malicious attacks. Scrambled watermark is now embedded into singular values of the reflectance component. As reflectance component contains prominent image features, hence embedding in this part provides better immunity against several attacks and imperceptibility is also attained as this component varies very rapidly. Thus, major aim for proposed watermarking technique is achieved. The proposed scheme is implemented with numerous wavelet families such as Haar, Coiflet, symlet and biorthogonal. The main idea for implementing with different wavelets is to judge which wavelet demonstrates good robustness against various attacks. Proposed scheme performance is also evaluated by examining comprehensively under several attacks such as rotation, sharpening. Results clearly prove high robustness for the proposed scheme. Superiority of proposed scheme is clearly indicated by comparing it with other commonly—used schemes as reported by other researchers. Benchmark attacks like “Checkmark” attacks are also verified for the proposed scheme.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abdallah, H. A., Faragallah, O. S., Elsayed, H. S., Shaalan, A. A., & El-samie, F. E. A. (2016). Robust image watermarking method using homomorphic block-based KLT. Optik-International Journal for Light and Electron Optics,127(4), 2374–2381.
Abdallah, H. A., Ghazy, R. A., Kasban, H., Faragallah, O. S., Shaalan, A. A., Hadhoud, M. M., et al. (2014). Homomorphic image watermarking with a singular value decomposition algorithm. Information Processing and Management,50(6), 909–923.
Agoyi, M., Çelebi, E., & Anbarjafari, G. (2015). A watermarking algorithm based on chirp z-transform, discrete wavelet transform, and singular value decomposition. Signal, Image and Video Processing,9(3), 735–745.
Al-Haj, A. (2007). Combined DWT-DCT digital image watermarking. Journal of computer science,3(9), 740–746.
Amini, M., Ahmad, M. O., & Swamy, M. N. S. (2017). Digital watermark extraction in wavelet domain using hidden Markov model. Multimedia Tools and Applications,76(3), 3731–3749.
Ansari, I. A., & Pant, M. (2017). Multipurpose image watermarking in the domain of DWT based on SVD and ABC. Pattern Recognition Letters,94, 228–236.
Bianchi, T., & Piva, A. (2013). Secure watermarking for multimedia content protection: A review of its benefits and open issues. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine,30(2), 87–96.
Brannock, E., Weeks, M., & Harrison, R. W. (2009). The effect of wavelet families on watermarking. Journals of Computers,4(6), 554–566.
Cox, I., Miller, M., Bloom, J., Fridrich, J., & Kalker, T. (2007). Digital watermarking and steganography. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.
Das, C., Panigrahi, S., Sharma, V. K., & Mahapatra, K. K. (2014). A novel blind robust image watermarking in DCT domain using inter-block coefficient correlation. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications,68(3), 244–253.
Fazli, S., & Moeini, M. (2016). A robust image watermarking method based on DWT, DCT, and SVD using a new technique for correction of main geometric attacks. Optik-International Journal for Light and Electron Optics,127(2), 964–972.
Ganic, E., & Eskicioglu, A. M. (2005). Robust embedding of visual watermarks using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. Journal of Electronic Imaging,14(4), 043004.
Gonzalez, R. C., & Richard, E. (2002). Woods, digital image processing. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 0-201-18075, 8.
Guo, J. M., & Prasetyo, H. (2014). Security analyses of the watermarking scheme based on redundant discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications,68(9), 816–834.
Kasana, G., & Kasana, S. S. (2017). Reference based semi blind image watermarking scheme in wavelet domain. Optik,142, 191–204.
Keshavarzian, R., & Aghagolzadeh, A. (2016). ROI based robust and secure image watermarking using DWT and Arnold map. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications,70(3), 278–288.
Khare, P., & Srivastava, V. K. (2018a). Image watermarking scheme using homomorphic transform in wavelet domain. In 2018 5th IEEE Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (UPCON) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Khare, P., & Srivastava, V. K. (2018b). Robust digital image watermarking scheme based on RDWT-DCT-SVD. In 2018 5th international conference on signal processing and integrated networks (SPIN) (pp. 88–93). IEEE.
Khare, P., & Srivastava, V. K. (2019). Secure image watermarking approach using HT-AT. In 2019 6th international conference on signal processing and integrated networks (SPIN) (pp. 547–551). IEEE.
Khare, P., Verma, A. K., & Srivastava, V. K. (2014). Digital image watermarking scheme in wavelet domain using chaotic encryption. In 2014 students conference on engineering and systems (pp. 1–4). IEEE.
Lai, C. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Digital image watermarking using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement,59(11), 3060–3063.
Lin, S. D., Shie, S. C., & Guo, J. Y. (2010). Improving the robustness of DCT-based image watermarking against JPEG compression. Computer Standards & Interfaces,32(1–2), 54–60.
Liu, Z., Gong, M., Dou, Y., Liu, F., Lin, S., Ahmad, M. A., et al. (2012). Double image encryption by using Arnold transform and discrete fractional angular transform. Optics and Lasers in Engineering,50(2), 248–255.
Liu, R., & Tan, T. (2002). An SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia,4(1), 121–128.
Makbol, N. M., & Khoo, B. E. (2013). Robust blind image watermarking scheme based on redundant discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications,67(2), 102–112.
Mallat, S. G. (1989). A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: The wavelet representation. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,11(7), 674–693.
Meerwald, P., & Pereira, S. (2002). Attacks, applications, and evaluation of known watermarking algorithms with Checkmark. In Security and watermarking of multimedia contents IV (Vol. 4675, pp. 293–304). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
Mohanty, S. P., Sengupta, A., Guturu, P., & Kougianos, E. (2017). Everything you want to know about watermarking: From paper marks to hardware protection: From paper marks to hardware protection. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine,6(3), 83–91.
Pandey, R., Singh, A. K., Kumar, B., & Mohan, A. (2016). Iris based secure NROI multiple eye image watermarking for teleophthalmology. Multimedia Tools and Applications,75(22), 14381–14397.
Pereira, S., Voloshynovskiy, S., Madueno, M., Marchand-Maillet, S., & Pun, T. (2001). Second generation benchmarking and application oriented evaluation. In International workshop on information hiding (pp. 340–353). Berlin: Springer.
Rastegar, S., Namazi, F., Yaghmaie, K., & Aliabadian, A. (2011). Hybrid watermarking algorithm based on singular value decomposition and radon transform. AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications,65(7), 658–663.
Roy, S., & Pal, A. K. (2017). A robust blind hybrid image watermarking scheme in RDWT-DCT domain using Arnold scrambling. Multimedia Tools and Applications,76(3), 3577–3616.
Roy, S., & Pal, A. K. (2018). A robust reversible image watermarking scheme in DCT domain using Arnold scrambling and histogram modification. International Journal of Information and Computer Security,10(2–3), 216–236.
Run, R. S., Horng, S. J., Lai, J. L., Kao, T. W., & Chen, R. J. (2012). An improved SVD-based watermarking technique for copyright protection. Expert Systems with Applications,39(1), 673–689.
Rykaczewski, R. (2007). Comments on “An SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership”. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia,9(2), 421–423.
Singh, A. K. (2017). Improved hybrid algorithm for robust and imperceptible multiple watermarking using digital images. Multimedia Tools and Applications,76(6), 8881–8900.
Singh, A. K., Dave, M., & Mohan, A. (2014a). Hybrid technique for robust and imperceptible image watermarking in DWT–DCT–SVD domain. National Academy Science Letters,37(4), 351–358.
Singh, A. K., Dave, M., & Mohan, A. (2014b). Wavelet based image watermarking: Futuristic concepts in information security. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section A: Physical Sciences,84(3), 345–359.
Singh, A. K., Dave, M., & Mohan, A. (2015a). Robust and secure multiple watermarking in wavelet domain. Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics,5(2), 406–414.
Singh, A. K., Kumar, B., Dave, M., & Mohan, A. (2015b). Robust and imperceptible dual watermarking for telemedicine applications. Wireless Personal Communications,80(4), 1415–1433.
Singh, A. K., Kumar, B., Dave, M., & Mohan, A. (2015c). Multiple watermarking on medical images using selective discrete wavelet transform coefficients. Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics,5(3), 607–614.
Subhedar, M. S., & Mankar, V. H. (2016). Image steganography using redundant discrete wavelet transform and QR factorization. Computers & Electrical Engineering,54, 406–422.
Thakkar, F., & Srivastava, V. K. (2017a). A particle swarm optimization and block-SVD-based watermarking for digital images. Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences,25(4), 3273–3288.
Thakkar, F. N., & Srivastava, V. K. (2017b). A fast watermarking algorithm with enhanced security using compressive sensing and principle components and its performance analysis against a set of standard attacks. Multimedia Tools and Applications,76(14), 15191–15219.
Thakkar, F. N., & Srivastava, V. K. (2018). Performance comparison of recent optimization algorithm Jaya with particle swarm optimization for digital image watermarking in complex wavelet domain. Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing,30(4), 17691791.
Thakur, S., Singh, A. K., Ghrera, S. P., & Elhoseny, M. (2019). Multi-layer security of medical data through watermarking and chaotic encryption for tele-health applications. Multimedia Tools and Applications,78(3), 3457–3470.
Vaish, A., & Kumar, M. (2017). Color image encryption using MSVD, DWT and Arnold transform in fractional Fourier domain. Optik,145, 273–283.
Wang, Z., Bovik, A. C., Sheikh, H. R., & Simoncelli, E. P. (2004). Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing,13(4), 600–612.
Wang, Y., Lin, W., & Yang, L. (2011). An intelligent watermarking method based on particle swarm optimization. Expert Systems with Applications. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2010.12.129.
Zhang, X. P., & Li, K. (2005). Comments on” An SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful Ownership”. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia,7(3), 593–594.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Khare, P., Srivastava, V.K. A reliable and secure image watermarking algorithm using homomorphic transform in DWT domain. Multidim Syst Sign Process (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11045-020-00732-1
- Arnold transform