A reversible data hiding algorithm for audio files based on code division multiplexing


In this paper, a reversible data hiding algorithm for audio files based on code division multiplexing (CDM) is proposed. In the scheme, the orthogonal spreading sequences are employed to carry the embedding data, and the host audio file can also be recovered completely after the secret message has been extracted accurately. At the same time, according the orthogonal character of the spreading sequences, the secret message can be embedded into the audio files repeatedly, and most elements of the spreading sequences are mutually canceled in the process of multi-level data embedding, which maintains the audio file in good auditory even at high data embedding capacity. Moreover, only the receiver who holds the same spreading sequences, as the sender can restore the embedded data, which enhance the security of the proposed scheme. As shown in the experimental results, the CDM based reversible data hiding (RDH) algorithm for audio files can achieve higher data embedding capacity at the same audio distortion compared with those state-of-the-art audio RDH algorithms.

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Data availability

The format of audio files used to support the findings of this study has been deposited in the website https://tech.ebu.ch/publications/sqamcd.


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The research reported in this paper was partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 61872203) and The National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 61802212).

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Correspondence to Bin Ma.

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Ma, B., Hou, JC., Wang, CP. et al. A reversible data hiding algorithm for audio files based on code division multiplexing. Multimed Tools Appl (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-021-10532-9

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  • Reversible data hiding (RDH)
  • Audio
  • Code division multiplexing (CDM)
  • Capacity