A novel piracy protection scheme for videos using force-induced pixels

Abstract

In this paper, a novel reversible keyless invisible authentication method is proposed for video piracy protection which uses randomized pixel at Red color channel for hiding information with locations of such modified pixels being stored in an immediate next frame. Each pair of these frames is identified with an embedded random number and an alphabet “A” or “B” based on hidden information frame and location information frame respectively. Such randomization at two different levels is not considered in any of the existing methods. Videos with this proposed embedding of copyright information ensure minimum distortions and maximum resistance to the removal of authentication information thereby providing an effective control of the rampant piracy menace. Keyless invisible embedding process increases the security and reduces the cost. Modified Least Significant Bit (LSB) based mechanism is used for achieving cost effectiveness and simplicity. The extracted information will be compared to assure the authenticity of videos. The average Euclidean distance between original and authenticated frames’ histogram is 2.5902e-10 that implies high similarity and thereby increasing its ability to withstand visual attacks. The proposed method results in PSNR greater than 50 dB with MSE less than 0.001 leading to high resultant image quality after embedding. High level of robustness is achieved due to the inherent mechanism of storing authentication information across all pairs of frame as well as complete randomization of the authentication storing pixels. In case of eavesdropping, using Bit-tolerance and Frame-tolerance we can confirm whether the corrupted video is acceptable or not.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Bahi JM, Fang X, Guyeux C (2017) An optimization technique on pseudorandom generators based on chaotic iterations. In: arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.08773

  2. 2.

    Cao Y, Zhang H, Zhao X, Yu H (2015) Video steganography based on optimized motion estimation perturbation. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on information hiding and multimedia security, ACM, pp 25–31

  3. 3.

    Cem kasapbaşi M, Elmasry W (2018) New LSB-based colour image steganography method to enhance the efficiency in payload capacity, security and integrity check. Sādhanā 43:68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12046-018-0848-4

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cipra B (1987) An introduction to the Ising model. Am Math Mon 94(10):937–959

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Dagar E, Dagar S (2014) LSB based image steganography using x-box mapping. IEEE international conference on advances in computing, communications and informatics (ICACCI), New Delhi pp 24–27

  6. 6.

    Das SK, Dhara BC (2015) A new secret image sharing with arithmetic coding. Proceedings of 2015 IEEE international conference on research in computational intelligence and networks, Kolkata pp 395–399

  7. 7.

    Deshmukh PU, Pattewar TM (2014) A novel approach for edge adaptive steganography on LSB insertion technique. IEEE international conference on information communication and embedded systems (ICICES), Chennai pp 27–28

  8. 8.

    Feng B, Lu W, Sun W (2015) Secure binary image steganography based on minimizing the distortion on the texture. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 10(2):243–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Fridrich J, Lisonek P, Soukal D (2008) On steganographic embedding efficiency, information hiding, In: 8th international workshop, vol 4437, Alexandria, pp. 282–296

  10. 10.

    Jain YK, Ahirwal RR (2010) A novel image steganography method with adaptive number of least significant bits modification based on private Stego-keys. Int J Comp Sci Sec 4(1):40–49

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kekre HB, Athawale AA, Halarnkar PN (2008) Increased capacity of information hiding in LSB’s method for text in image. Int J Electrical, Comp System Eng 2(4):246–249

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Kelash HM, Wahab OFA, Elshakankiry OA, El-sayed HS (2013) Hiding data in video sequences using steganography algorithms. International conference on ICT convergence (ICTC), IEEE, pp 353–358

  13. 13.

    Li-Yi Z, Wei-Dong Z et al (2011) A novel steganography algorithm based on motion vector and matrix encoding. IEEE 3rd international conference on communication software and networks (ICCSN), IEEE, pp 406–409

  14. 14.

    Paul G, Davidson I, Mukherjee I, Ravi SS (2012) Keyless steganography in spatial domain using energetic pixels. In: Venkatakrishnan V et al (eds) Proceedings of the 8th international conference on information systems security (ICISS), volume 7671. LNCS, Springer, Guwahati, pp 134–148. ISBN: 978-3-642-35129-7

  15. 15.

    Paul G, Davidson I, Mukherjee I, Ravi SS (2012) Keyless dynamic optimal multi-bit image steganography using energetic pixels. Multimedia Tools Appl 76:7445–7471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-016-3319-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Paul G, Mukherjee I (2010) Image sterilization to prevent LSB-based steganographic transmission, arXiv preprint arXiv:1012.5573

  17. 17.

    Petitcolas FAP (2000) Watermarking schemes evaluation. IEEE Signal Processing 17(5):58–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Petitcolas FAP, Anderson RJ, Kuhn MG (1999) Attacks on copyright marking systems, In: David Aucsmith (Ed), Information Hiding, Second International Workshop, IH’98, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A., April 15–17, 1998, Proceedings, LNCS 1525, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3–540–65386-4 pp 219–239

  19. 19.

    Provos N (2001) Defending against statistical steganalysis, in: 10th USENIX security symposium pp 325–335

  20. 20.

    Ramalingam M (2011) Stego machine-video steganography using modified lsb algorithm. World Acad Sci, Eng Technol Int J Inform Comm Eng 5(2):502–505

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Swain G, Lenka SK (2012) A technique for secret communication by using a new block cipher with dynamic steganography. Int J Sec its Appl 6(2):1–12

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Wayner P (2002) Disappearing cryptography - information hiding, steganography & watermarking, 2nd edn. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. ISBN: 1-55860-769-2

  23. 23.

    Westfeld A, Pfitzmann A (1999) Attacks on steganographic systems. Proceedings the 3rd international workshop on information hiding, LNCS 1768. Springer-Verlag pp 61–76

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jayati Bhadra.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bhadra, J., Murthy, M.V. & Banga, M.K. A novel piracy protection scheme for videos using force-induced pixels. Multimed Tools Appl (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-020-09162-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Stego-image
  • watermark
  • bit-tolerance
  • frame-tolerance
  • centrifugal force
  • modified LSB