An efficient reversible ECG steganography by adaptive LSB approach based on 1D FDCT domain


Based on the processing of one-dimensional fast discrete cosine transform (1D FDCT) coefficients, we present an efficient reversible data hiding method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The proposed method is implemented in two phases. The purpose of phase-I is to classify the FDCT (host) bundles, where each input bundle will be attributed to one of four different bundles. The aim of phase-II is to embed data bits in the selected coefficients of the classified bundles according to a predetermined bit-index table (which generated from phase-I) via adaptive least significant bit (LSB) technique. Simulations confirmed that hidden bits were extracted without distortion and the original ECG signal can be completely recovered. Furthermore, a good perceived quality and a hiding capacity superior to existing techniques were achieved. Moreover, our method is robust against attacks such as noise addition, inversion, truncation, translations, and so on. Notice that the robustness is rarely seen in conventional reversible ECG steganography methods. Since this method has a fast computation speed, it is feasible for real-time applications and can be installed in the health care devices such as the wearable ECG measure equipment.

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Correspondence to Ching-Yu Yang.

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Yang, C., Cheng, L. & Wang, W. An efficient reversible ECG steganography by adaptive LSB approach based on 1D FDCT domain. Multimed Tools Appl (2020).

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  • Data hiding
  • Reversible ECG steganography
  • 1D FDCT
  • Adaptive LSB technique