Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 14, pp 18967–18994 | Cite as

Efficient protection using chaos for Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding in H.264/Advanced Video Coding

  • Yanjie Song
  • Zhiliang ZhuEmail author
  • Wei Zhang
  • Hai Yu


Recently, video encryption has been widely investigated to enhance the protection for video data, yet the encryption efficiency may not be considered sufficiently so that some encryption schemes are unsuitable for the real-time applications. In this paper, we propose a novel chaotic selective encryption scheme (CSES) based on Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) of H.264/Advanced Video Coding (H.264/AVC) for the practical applications. To satisfy the secure and real-time requirement, we select the important and sensitive encryption objects on the basis of the analysis of syntax elements in CABAC. According to the characteristics of chosen syntax elements, two encryption methods combined with two designed chaos-based key stream generators (KSGs) are presented in CSES to implement the video encryption with the reasonable and acceptable compression and encryption performance. The experimental results and security analysis demonstrate that the proposed CSES with the format-compliance has the good confidentiality and can resist some common security attacks, such as the brute force attack, histogram attack, information entropy attack, replacement attack and some other common attacks. It can be found from the comparison experiments about the encryption efficiency that our CSES has the higher real-time performance. The comparison analysis with other video encryption methods illustrates that the proposed CSES is more suitable for the practical applications.


H.264/AVC CABAC Selective encryption Real-time Chaos 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 61374178, 61402092, 61603182]; the Online Education Research Fund of the MOE Research Center for Online Education, China [qtone education, grant number 2016ZD306]; the Ph.D. Start-Up Foundation of Liaoning Province, China [grant number 201501141]; and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities [grant number N171704004].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

All the authors have been informed about this submission.

This research does not involve any animals.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Software CollegeNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina

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