Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 14, pp 19045–19059 | Cite as

Extended squared magic matrix for embedding secret information with large payload

  • Xiao-Zhu Xie
  • Yanjun LiuEmail author
  • Chin-Chen Chang


Data hiding is a technology designed for safely transmitting secret data through open communication channels, in which the secret data are embedded into a cover carrier imperceptibly. Among the existing data hiding schemes, the exploiting-modification-direction (EMD) based schemes draw considerable attentions due to large embedding capacity. The proposed scheme improves the EMD-2 scheme by constructing an extended squared magic matrix, resulting in a larger embedding capacity high up to 3.15 bits per pixel (bpp). Experimental results show that the proposed scheme outperforms state-of-the-art reference matrix based schemes in terms of embedding capacity, meanwhile, maintains good image quality.


Data hiding High capacity EMD-2 Extended squared magic matrix 



This work is supported by Education and Scientific Research Project of Fujian Province under Grant JT180436, Xiamen Science and Technology Planning Project under Grant 3502Z20183058 and Open Fund of Engineering Research Center for Software Testing and Evaluation of Fujian Province.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering Research Center for Software Testing and Evaluation of Fujian ProvinceXiamen University of TechnologyXiamenChina
  2. 2.Department of Information Engineering and Computer ScienceFeng Chia UniversityTaichungRepublic of China

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