Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 3, pp 3279–3296 | Cite as

On helping broadcasters to promote TV-shows through hashtags

  • Roberta De Michele
  • Stefano Ferretti
  • Marco FuriniEmail author


Television is no longer the king of the living room: 86% of people watch TV with a second screen in the nearby and more than 30% of the attention time is given to the second device to perform social activities. Therefore, the television industry is facing a new challenge: find a way to re-catch viewers’ attention. A recent and popular approach considers the use of official hashtags to implement a cross-media strategy that will connect different contents across multiple media. Since the simple proposition of official hashtags is not sufficient to guarantee the success of a cross media strategy, in this paper, we analyze how official hashtags are used and we propose a model to write tweets effectively. The model is based on the analysis of more than 250,000 tweets that talk about TV-shows. In particular, (i) we analyze the availability and visibility of official hashtags, (ii) we study the tweets characteristics written by the most retweeted authors, and (iii) we build a network of hashtags in order to understand how users use official hashtags. The obtained results allowed us to define guidelines to help broadcasters in the promotion of TV-shows and in the engagement of viewers.


Hashtags TV-shows Cross-media strategy Twitter conversation Network of hashtag Small-world 



  1. 1.
    Blumenstein K, Niederer C, Wagner M, Pfersmann W, Seidl M, Aigner W (2017) Visualizing spatial and time-oriented data in a second screen application. In: Proceedings of the 19th international conference on human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services, MobileHCI ’17. ACM, New York, pp 84:1–84:8Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bujari A, Furini M, Laina N (2017) On using cashtags to predict companies stock trends. In: 2017 14th IEEE annual consumer communications networking conference (CCNC), pp 25–28Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bujari A, Furini M, Mandreoli G, Martoglia R, Montangero M, Ronzani D (2018) Standards, security and business models: Key challenges for the Iot scenario. Mobile Networks and Applications 23(1):147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Courtois C, D’heer E (2012) Second screen applications and tablet users: Constellation, awareness, experience, and interest. In: Proceedings of the 10th european conference on interactive TV and video, euroITV ’12. ACM, New York, pp 153–156Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Michele R, Furini M (2017) Improving viewers engagement through gamification and second screen. In: 2017 IEEE symposium on computers and communications (ISCC), pp 128–133Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    do Nascimento FJB, de Souza CT (2016) Features of second screen applications: a systematic review. In: Proceedings of the 22Nd brazilian symposium on multimedia and the Web, Webmedia ’16. ACM, New York, pp 83–86Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Egidi L, Furini M (2005) Bringing multimedia contents into MP3 files. IEEE Commun Mag 43(5):90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Furini M (2008) An architecture to easily produce adventure and movie games for the mobile scenario. ACM Comput Entertain 6(2):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Furini M (2014) Users behavior in location-aware services: Digital natives vs digital immigrants. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, pp 2014Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Furini M, Tamanini V (2015) Location privacy and public metadata in social media platforms: attitudes, behaviors and opinions. Multimed Tools Appl 74(21):9795–9825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Furini M, Montangero M (2016) Tsentiment: on gamifying twitter sentiment analysis. In: Proceedings of IEEE symposium on computers and communication, pp 91–96Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Furini M, Mandreoli F, Martoglia R, Montangero M (2017) Science Fiction or Real Revolution? Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 96–105Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Furini M, Mandreoli F, Martoglia R, Montangero M (2017) The use of hashtags in the promotion of art exhibitions. In: 13th research conference on digital libraries, IRCDL 2017, Modena, pp 187–198Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Furini M, Menegoni G (2018) Public health and social media: Language analysis of vaccine conversations. In: 2018 international workshop on social sensing (SocialSens), pp 50–55Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ferretti S (2016) Guitar solos as networks. In: 2016 IEEE international conference on multimedia and expo (ICME), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ferretti S (2017) On the modeling of musical solos as complex networks. Inf Sci 375:271–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ferretti S (2017) On the complex network structure of musical pieces: analysis of some use cases from different music genres. Multimedia Tools and ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Geerts D, Leenheer R, De Grooff D, Negenman J, Heijstraten S (2014) In front of and behind the second screen: Viewer and producer perspectives on a companion app. In: Proceedings of the ACM international conference on interactive experiences for TV and online video, TVX ’14, pp 95–102Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghosh S, Viswanath B, Kooti F, Sharma NK, Korlam G, Benevenuto F, Ganguly N, Gummadi KP (2012) Understanding and combating link farming in the twitter social network. In: Proceedings of the 21st international conference on World Wide Web, WWW ’12, pp 61–70Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giglietto F, Selva D (2014) Second screen and participation: A content analysis on a full season dataset of tweets. J Commun 64(2):260–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Google (2012) The New Multiscreen World: Understanding Cross-platform Consumer Behavior. In
  22. 22.
    Gupta A, Lamba H, Kumaraguru P, Joshi A (2013) Faking sandy: Characterizing and identifying fake images on twitter during hurricane sandy. In: Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on World Wide Web, WWW ’13 Companion, pp 729–736Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holmes ME, Josephson S, Carney RE (2012) Visual attention to television programs with a second-screen application. In: Proceedings of the symposium on eye tracking research and applications, pp 397–400Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jenkins H (2006) Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. NYU Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee S, wan Yoo J, Han G (2015) A second screen web service framework based on multimedia package distribution. In: 2015 IEEE international conference on consumer electronics (ICCE), pp 42–45Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meloni LFP, Costa GC, Kobayashi G, Kurashima CS (2016) Implementation of chat application for ginga middleware technology using second screen. In: 2016 IEEE international symposium on consumer electronics (ISCE), pp 43–44Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Montangero M, Trank MF (2015) Ranking twitter users according to specific topics. In: 2015 12th annual IEEE consumer communications and networking conference (CCNC), pp 767–772Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mu M, Knowles W, Sani Y, Mauthe A, Race N (2015) Improving interactive tv experience using second screen mobile applications. In: 2015 IEEE international symposium on multimedia (ISM), pp 373–376Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mukherjee P, Wong JS, Jansen B (2014) Patterns of Social Media Conversations Using Second Screens. In: Proceedings of the international BigData/SocialCom/CyberSecurity conferenceGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mukherjee P, Jansen BJ (2016) Second screen interaction analysis for irl events Phase-category investigation of the super bowl 2015 social soundtrack. In: 2016 7th international conference on information and communication systems (ICICS), pp 13–19Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Narasimhan N, Doo M, Wodka J, Vasudevan V (2010) Collectv intelligence: A 3-screen social search system for tv and video queries. In: 6th international conference on collaborative computing: networking, applications and worksharing (CollaborateCom 2010), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nagy J, Midha A (2014) The value of earned audiences: How social interactions amplify tv impact. J Advert Res 54(4):448–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Newman M (2010) Networks: An introduction. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pagno B, Costa D, Guedes L, Freitas CDS, Nedel L (2015) Guidelines for designing dynamic applications with second screen. In: 2015 XVII symposium on virtual and augmented reality, pp 42–51Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pal A, Counts S (2011) Identifying topical authorities in microblogs. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM international conference on web search and data mining, WSDM ’11, pp 45–54Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Proulx M, Shepatin S (2012) Social TV: How Marketers Can Reach and Engage Audiences by Connecting Television to the Web, Social Media, and Mobile. Wiley, NYGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stenger M (2012) TV goes social: The rise of the second screen. In
  38. 38.
    Stringhini G, Wang G, Egele M, Kruegel C, Vigna G, Zheng H, Zhao BY (2013) Follow the green Growth and dynamics in twitter follower markets. In: Proceedings of the conference on internet measurement conference, IMC ’13, pp 163–176Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Watts DJ, Strogatz SH (1998) Collective dynamics of’small-world’networks. Nature 393(6684):409–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Weng J, Lim E-P, Jiang J, He Q (2010) Twitterrank: Finding Topic-sensitive Influential Twitterers. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM international conference on web search and data mining, WSDM ’10, pp 261–270Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fondazione Marco BiagiUniversita di Modena e Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Informatica – Scienza e IngegneriaUniversità di BolognaBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Comunicazione ed EconomiaUniversità di Modena e Reggio EmiliaReggio EmiliaItaly

Personalised recommendations