A novel imperceptible digital watermarking scheme in multiple transform domains is presented, where the cover image is dealt with by discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete fractional random transform (DFRNT), while the watermark image is scrambled by Arnold transform and logistic map. First the watermark is scrambled by the Arnold transform, then the row and the column of the resulting watermark are scrambled by the Logistic map, respectively. In addition, four sub-band images are generated from the host image by the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. The low-frequency sub-band images are divided into 8 × 8 small matrices, and a coefficient matrix is produced by performing the discrete cosine transform on each matrix. An intermediate matrix with the same size as the watermark image is constructed by the intermediate frequency coefficients. Then the discrete fractional random transformation is performed on the intermediate frequency coefficient matrix and the scrambled watermark is embedded into the discrete fractional random transformation domain. Compared with the previous schemes, the proposed digital watermarking scheme has stronger imperceptibility and robustness.
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This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61462061 and 61561033), the China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201606825042), the Department of Human Resources and Social security of Jiangxi Province, the Major Academic Discipline and Technical Leader of Jiangxi Province (Grant No. 20162BCB22011), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (Grant No. 20171BAB202002).
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Zhou, N.R., Hou, W.M.X., Wen, R.H. et al. Imperceptible digital watermarking scheme in multiple transform domains. Multimed Tools Appl 77, 30251–30267 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-018-6128-9
- Digital watermarking
- Transform domain
- Watermark scrambling