Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 19, pp 25709–25759 | Cite as

Robust hybrid watermarking techniques for different color imaging systems

  • Khalid A. Al-Afandy
  • Walid El-Shafai
  • El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie
  • Fathi E. Abd El-Samie
  • Osama S. Faragallah
  • Ahmed El-Mhalaway
  • Ahmed M. Shehata
  • Ghada M. El-Banby
  • Mohamed M. El-Halawany


Digital watermarking is an efficient and promising mechanism for protecting the copyright of the transmitted multimedia information. Thus, this paper presents two robust hybrid color image watermarking techniques. The objective of the proposed watermarking techniques is to increase the immunity of the watermarked color images against attacks and to achieve adequate perceptual quality. The first proposed hybrid technique is the homomorphic transform based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Firstly, the DWT is employed to divide an image into non-overlapping bands. Then, the reflectance components of the LL sub-bands are extracted using the homomorphic transform of each of the RGB (Red, Green, and Blue) color image components. After that, the watermark is embedded by applying the SVD on these reflectance components. The second proposed hybrid technique is the three-level Discrete Stationary Wavelet Transform (DSWT) in Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. In this technique, the RGB components of the host color image are separated, and then the DCT is applied on each separated color component. The three-level DSWT is employed to divide the DCT components into four sub-bands. These sub-bands are the A, H, V, and D matrices, which have the same host image size. The watermark image is then embedded into the determined matrix A. The two proposed hybrid watermarking techniques are compared with the current state-of-the-art techniques. This paper also presents a comparative study of the proposed techniques for different color imaging systems to determine their robustness and stability. The comparisons are based on the subjective visual results to detect any degradation in the watermarked image in addition to the objective results of the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) of the watermarked image, and the Normalized Correlation (NC) of the extracted watermark to test and evaluate the performance efficiency of the proposed watermarking techniques. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed hybrid watermarking techniques are both robust and have adequate immunity against different types of attacks compared to the traditional watermarking techniques. They achieve not only very good perceptual quality with appreciated PSNR values, but also high correlation coefficient values in the presence of different multimedia attacks.


Image watermarking Homomorphic transform SVD DWT DSWT DCT Color imaging systems 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khalid A. Al-Afandy
    • 1
  • Walid El-Shafai
    • 2
  • El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie
    • 2
  • Fathi E. Abd El-Samie
    • 2
  • Osama S. Faragallah
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ahmed El-Mhalaway
    • 1
  • Ahmed M. Shehata
    • 1
  • Ghada M. El-Banby
    • 3
  • Mohamed M. El-Halawany
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic EngineeringMenoufia UniversityMenoufEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering, Faculty of Electronic EngineeringMenoufia UniversityMenoufEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Industrial Electronics and Control Engineering, Faculty of Electronic EngineeringMenoufia UniversityMenoufEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Information Technology, College of Computers and Information TechnologyTaif UniversityAl-HawiyaKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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