Digital images are increasingly transmitted over non-secure channels such as Internet, therefore image authentication techniques have recently gained great attention due to their importance for a large number of multimedia applications. To protect the authenticity of images, several approaches have been proposed. These approaches include conventional cryptography, semi-fragile watermarking and digital signatures. In this paper, we propose two techniques of the same type based on what we call characteristic data digest. Both techniques can blindly detect and localize malicious tampering, while maintaining reasonable tolerance to conventional content-preserving manipulations. The characteristic data is derived from the relative difference between each pair of selected DCT coefficient, AC for one technique and DC for another technique, in a central block and its counterpart estimated by the center block and its adjacent blocks. In order to maintain the relative difference relationship when the image undergoes legitimate processing, we make a pre-compensation for the coefficients. Experimental results show that our techniques are significantly superior to semi-fragile techniques under the condition of the same image fidelity, especially in tolerance range of legitimate processing, and/or the ability to detect and localize the tampered area. Due to the simplicity of the algorithms, our techniques can be used in video frame authentication, and even other digital media. In addition, this kind of proposed techniques can be extended to use other characteristic data, such as high-level moment, statistical data of images, and so on.
Image authentication Digital image signature Semi-fragile watermark DCT transforms
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was supported by applied basic research plan of Wuhan Science and Technology Bureau with Grant No. 2017010201010105 in China, and Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Committee with Grant No. JCYJ20170306170559215 in China.
Dittmann J, Steinmetz A, Steinmetz R (1999) Content-based digital signature for motion pictures authentication and content-fragile watermarking. In: Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems, vol II. IEEE Computer Society, New York, pp 209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fei C, Kundur D, Kwong RH (2006) Analysis and design of secure watermark-based authentication systems. IEEE Trans Inf Forensics Secur 1(1):43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng W, Liu ZQ (2008) Region-Level Image Authentication Using Bayesian Structural Content Abstraction. IEEE Trans Image Process 17(12):2413–2424MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
Gonzales CA, Allman L, Mccarthy T (1990) DCT coding for motion video storage using adaptive arithmetic coding. Signal Process Image Commun 2(2):145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guzman AM, Goryawala M, Wang J, Adjouadi M (2013) Thermal Imaging as a Biometrics Approach to Facial Signature Authentication. IEEE J Biomed Health Informatics 17(1):214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haouzia A, Noumeir R (2008) Methods for image authentication: a survey. Multimed Tool Appl 1(39):1–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin C-Y, Chang S-F (2001) A robust image authentication method distinguishing JPEG compression from malicious manipulation. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 11(2):153–168Google Scholar
Lin C, Chang S (2010) Semi-fragile watermarking for authenticating JPEG visual content. Proc. SPIE 3971, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents II, (9 May 2000). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.384968
Lin ET, Podilchun CI, Delp EJ (2000) Detection of image alterations using semi-fragile watermarks. Proc. SPIE 3971, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents II, (9 May 2000). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.384969
Toyokawa K, Morimoto N, Tonegawa S, Kamijo K, Koide A (2000) Secure digital photograph handling with watermarking technique in insurance claim process. Proc SPIE 3971:438–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tse D, Viswanath P (2005) Fundamentals of wireless communication, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 203–210CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
Wu CW (2012) On the design of content-based multimedia authentication systems. IEEE Trans Multimed 4(3):385–393Google Scholar
Yu GW, Lu CS, Liao HYM (2001) Mean quantization-based fragile watermarking for image authentication. Opt Eng 40(7):1396–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yuan H, Zhang XP (2006) Multi-scale Fragile Watermarking Based on the Gaussian Mixture Model. IEEE Trans Image Process 15(10):3189–3200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yuan L, Ran Q, Zhao T (2017) Image authentication based on double-image encryption and partial phase decryption in nonseparable fractional Fourier domain. Opt Laser Technol 88:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu BB, Swanson MD, Tewfik AH (2004) When seeing isn't believing [multimedia authentication technologies]. IEEE Signal Process Mag 21(2):40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu BB, Swanson MD, Tewfik AH (2004) When seeing isn’t believing. IEEE Signal Processing Mag 21(2):40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar