Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 7, pp 4129–4150 | Cite as

LWT- QR decomposition based robust and efficient image watermarking scheme using Lagrangian SVR

  • Rajesh Mehta
  • Navin Rajpal
  • Virendra P. Vishwakarma


In this paper, an efficient and robust image watermarking scheme based on lifting wavelet transform (LWT) and QR decomposition using Lagrangian support vector regression (LSVR) is presented. After performing one level decomposition of host image using LWT, the low frequency subband is divided into 4 × 4 non-overlapping blocks. Based on the correlation property of lifting wavelet coefficients, each selected block is followed by QR decomposition. The significant element of first row of R matrix of each block is set as target to LSVR for embedding the watermark. The remaining elements (called feature vector) of upper triangular matrix R act as input to LSVR. The security of the watermark is achieved by applying Arnold transformation to original watermark to get its scrambled image. This scrambled image is embedded into the output (predicted value) of LSVR compared with the target value using optimal scaling factor to reduce the tradeoff between imperceptibility and robustness. Experimental results show that proposed scheme not only efficient in terms of computational cost and memory requirement but also achieve good imperceptibility and robustness against image processing operations compared to the state-of-art techniques.


Lagrangian support vector regression Lifting wavelet transform QR decomposition 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajesh Mehta
    • 1
  • Navin Rajpal
    • 1
  • Virendra P. Vishwakarma
    • 1
  1. 1.University School of Information and Communication TechnologyGuru Gobind Singh Indraprastha UniversityDwarkaIndia

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