Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 18, pp 11493–11512 | Cite as

Incorporating data hiding into G.729 speech codec

  • Shufan Yan
  • Guangming Tang
  • Yanling Chen


The rapid development of speech communication technology has made it possible for low bit-rate speech to become appropriate steganographic cover media. To incorporate data hiding into the low bit-rate speech codec, a novel steganography algorithm is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the encoding rule of fixed codebook vector, the way of transposing encoding locations of adjacent pulses is found to be suitable for data embedding with good imperceptibility. Based on encoding location transposition of adjacent pulses, the relationship between adjacent pulse locations is used to embed secret data while the fixed codebook search is being conducted during the encoding process of G.729 codec, which can maintain synchronization between data embedding and speech encoding. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed steganography algorithm performs well in imperceptibility with a hiding capacity of 550 bits/s. Furthermore, the real-time and anti-detection performances are also satisfactory.


G.729 codec Low bit-rate speech Steganography Fixed codebook search 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology InstituteZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Information SecurityZhengzhou Information Science and Technology InstituteZhengzhouChina

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