Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 16, pp 9837–9859 | Cite as

Dynamic reconfigurable encryption and decryption with chaos/M-sequence mapping algorithm for secure H.264/AVC video streaming over OCDMA passive optical network

  • Yao-Tang Chang
  • Yih-Chuan LinEmail author


To enhance the security of H.264/AVC streaming, such as that for Internet protocol television, over a passive optical network (PON), a dynamic reconfigurable coding–decoding scheme, based on a chaotic sequence, was demonstrated and characterised by pseudo randomness and a maximal period. Compared with conventional optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) PONs, without providing a dynamic reconfigurable mechanism and trigger timing, a secure mechanism was generated using a proposed chaos/maximal length sequence (M-sequence) mapping algorithm and embedded in a codebook to control an electrical controller (register). Because the state of the electrical controller (register) is used by the chaos/M-sequence mapping time sequence pattern to trigger a switch matrix and then vary the M-sequence signature address code for each authorised user, the scrambling and interleaving function of the encryption scheme was implemented in the OCDMA-PON physical layer for various M-sequence signature address codes to carry individual H.264/AVC transmissions of the same channel. The proposed chaos/M-sequence mapping algorithm provided similar pseudo randomness and higher variance effectiveness compared with a general uniform distribution of the pseudo-random, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation properties of the proposed time sequence. In addition, the scrambling and interleaving efficiency was determined to be sufficiently high by the reduced peak signal-to-noise ratio of encrypted videos and the produced unidentifiable videos for unauthorised users.


Dynamic reconfigurable encryption–decryption Optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) Passive optical network (PON) Chaos/M-sequence mapping algorithm (CMmA) H.264/AVC streaming Scrambling encryption 



We thank Mr. Chung-Wei Tsailin, Yen-Chung Huang, and Wei-Hsiang Wang for providing information related to the experiments and simulations.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyKao Yuan UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Formosa UniversityYunlinTaiwan

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