Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 16, pp 9745–9755 | Cite as

Frequency domain digital watermark recognition using image code sequences with a back-propagation neural network

  • Chih-Ta YenEmail author
  • Yi-Jie Huang


Digital watermarking is an encryption technique commonly used to protect intellectual property and copyright. Although watermarks are a robust method of protecting property rights, environmental interference in image propagation through the Internet is inevitable, and human-based image modification can also destroy watermarks. In this study, watermarks (affected by noise interference) were embedded in a 256 × 256 pixel host image by using the discrete cosine transform (DCT) technique, which transfers the spatial domain of the host image into the frequency domain. Subsequently, 32 × 32 pixel watermarked images were embedded as watermark identification codes in the transferred frequency-domain-based host image. The inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT) technique was used to alter the frequency of the spatial domain, thereby allowing the host image to be visible to the human eye. Several common interferences, such as salt-and-pepper noise, Gaussian noise, clipping, and rotation, were used to destroy the watermarked image. After the destruction process, the watermark was almost discernible in a slightly damaged state, but difficult to identify in a seriously damaged state after using the DCT watermarking scheme. In this study, a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) algorithm combined with a DCT watermarking scheme was used to suppress the interference affecting watermarks. The simulation results of using the proposed DCT-BPNN method indicated that the original watermarked image was restored considerably after being subjected to environmental interference during image propagation.


Digital watermarking Discrete cosine transform (DCT) Salt-and-pepper noise Gaussian noise Clipping and rotation Back-propagation neural network (BPNN) 



This study was partially supported by the National Science Council under Grant No. 102-2622-E-150-016-CC3.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNational Formosa UniversityYunlinTaiwan

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