Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 10, pp 5493–5511 | Cite as

Optimization-based image watermarking with integrated quantization embedding in the wavelet-domain

  • Shuo-Tsung Chen
  • Huang-Nan Huang
  • Woon-Man Kung
  • Chih-Yu Hsu


This study presents an optimization-based image watermarking scheme with integrated quantization embedding. First, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is rewritten as a performance index in matrix form. In order to guarantee the robustness, this study embeds a watermark into the low-frequency coefficients of discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Unlike traditional way of single-coefficient quantization, this study applies amplitude quantization to embed the watermark and then rewrite this amplitude quantization as a constraint with embedding state. Then, an optimization-based equation connecting the performance index and amplitude-quantization constraint is obtained. Second, Lagrange Principle is used to solve the equation and then the optimal results are applied to embed the watermark. In detection, the hidden watermark can be extracted without original image. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated by PSNR and BER.


Image watermarking Integrated Quantization DWT Optimization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuo-Tsung Chen
    • 1
    • 5
  • Huang-Nan Huang
    • 1
  • Woon-Man Kung
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chih-Yu Hsu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Applied MathematicsTunghai UniversityTaichungRepublic of China
  2. 2.Department of Exercise and Health Promotion, College of EducationChinese Culture University (CCU)Taipei CityRepublic of China
  3. 3.Department of Neurosurgery, Lo-Hsu FoundationLotung Poh-Ai HospitalYilanRepublic of China
  4. 4.Department of Information and Communication EngineeringChaoyang University of TechnologyTaichung CountyRepublic of China
  5. 5.Department of Electronic EngineeringNational Formosa UniversityYunlin CountyRepublic of China

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